SPAIN A Modern Industrial Society
Spain is an industrial society located in Southwestern Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay, the Mediterranean Sea, the North Atlantic Ocean, and Pyrenees Mountains. It borders France to the north and Portugal to the west.
Although Spain is an industrial country today, it took years for its economy to catch up with other industrial countries. • This is due to the fact that Spain “failed to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions” which caused it to fall behind other countries such as Britain, France, and Germany. • It has only been since the second half of the 20th century that Spain has actually had a true part in the western international community.
Spain has, for the most part, held its current boundaries for approximately the past 200 years. • There is an ongoing dispute with the United Kingdom concerning the area of Gibraltar. • It was conquered by Britain in 1704. The Treaty of Utrecht gave the territory to Britain “in perpetuity” in 1713. Despite this, Spain still calls for the return of the territory, despite the fact that the people of Gibraltar oppose it.
SPAIN AND COLONIALISM Spain had its heyday in the 16th and 17th centuries when it came to wealth and political power. The country took full advantage of this by asserting its influence throughout the New World. The empire included most of South and Central America, Mexico, and the southwestern portion of what is today the United States. It also included territory throughout modern Europe. Eventually, all of these territories were either lost or sold. Due to its limited economic and political power, Spain played a very minor role in colonialism during the 20th century. Its areas of conquest and colonization included the Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco, and Equatorial Guinea.
CURRENT ECONOMY OF SPAIN • Spain has a mixed-capitalist economy with a GDP of $18,000 per capita. This is only 80% that of the four leading West European countries. • The major sectors of the economy include: • agriculture (4%) • industry (31%) • services (65%). • The most prevalent industries are textiles and apparel, food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, and tourism. Growth of real GDP per capita in Spain from 1950-2000. Values in 1996 dollars.
POPULATION • As of 2007, • The Birth Rate is 10% • The Death Rate is 9.8% • The Rate of Population Growth is 0.116% • Spain has one of the lowest fertility rates in the world. • 1.37 = average number of children per mother • One reason for this is Spain’s poor Family Planning Policies, especially in comparison to other national programs in Western Europe. • In order for a Spanish woman to receive the same amount of fiscal support for three children as a mother in Luxemburg, for example, she would have to have 57 children.
POPULATION • Spain’s infant mortality rate is 4.31 deaths/1,000 live births, one of the lowest in the world. • Birth control was illegal until 1978 • Today it is still having its effects on the population size. • Married women under the age of 34 are highly likely to use some form of birth control. • Also a factor in smaller families.
MIGRATION • Before the international economic crisis of the 1970s, Spaniards that left the country either headed for the Americas or Northern Europe. • In recent years, just 2,000 Spaniards/year leave the country permanently. • Although migration still occurs, Spain is mostly known today as a country of immigration.
IMMIGRATION • Spain has recently felt a great influx of immigration. • As of Jan. 2007, over 4.5 million foreign residents lived in Spain (over %10 of the population) • Spain has the largest immigrant population of any European country • Major immigration from… • Morocco (582,923) • Romania (527,019) • Ecuador (427, 099) • UK (314, 951) • Colombia (261,542) • Bolivia (200,496) • Germany (164,405) • Argentina (141,159) • Italy (135,108) • Bulgaria (122, 057) • **Population totals as of 2007**
IMMIGRATION • Reasons for immigration boom: • Geographical positioning • Ease of entry and Open Door Policy • Strength of the country’s agricultural and construction sectors and the subsequent need for cheap labor • Spain is the most popular destination for Europeans considering a move to seek jobs within the EU. • This great influx of immigrants has caused social tensions, but has also greatly helped the economy.
IDEOLOGIES: MAIN RELIGIONS • Christianity: Roman Catholics and Protestants. • Roman Catholics make up 77% of the Spanish population, while Protestants are only 2%. • Islam: Moors. • 300,000 Muslims live in Spain. • Judaism: Marranos. • About 12,000 Jews reside in Spain.
IDEOLOGIES: ROMAN CATHOLOCISM • Roman Catholicism was the official religion of Spain for most of 589-1978. • However, at the beginning of the 1930s, there was no state religion until General Francisco Franco restored it as the official religion at the end of the Spanish Civil War in 1939. • Pilgrimages are made by many Catholics each year to Santiago de Compostela and El Rocio to honor saints.
IDEOLOGIES: CONFLICT • Although ¾ of Spain is Roman Catholic, only about 30% say that they attend Mass regularly. • The Roman Catholic Church still receives financial support from the state. • The Spanish government is now passing laws that go against the Catholic Church teachings.
POLITY • Spain was under the dictatorship of General Franco for 36 years, until 1975. • On December 27, 1978, the Constitution of 1978 was ratified. • Spain is now divided into 17 separate regions. Each region is autonomous and has its own rights and government.
POLITY • Spain has 3 levels of government: • Central State Government. • Autonomous Communities Government. • Municipal Government. • The legislative branch is bicameral and made up of the Congress of Deputies and the Senate. • There are 2 main political parties in Spain: • Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party: the oldest political party in Spain. The current Prime Minister was elected from this party. • Popular Party: the conservative party.
POLITY • Parliamentary Monarchy. • The King is the Head of State. • Juan Carlos I is the King of Spain. • Prime Minister of Spain is José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero. • The Prime Minister holds the title of President of the Government of Spain and is elected by the Congress after being selected by the King. • Corruption in Spain.