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Marine Corps History

Marine Corps History

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Marine Corps History

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  1. Marine Corps History 1950 -Korean War LE1508 : Pages 71-83

  2. Changes In The Corps • Women allowed to join • First time : WWI • Commandant Resisted the Change • 1942 Women’s Reserve was formed • 18,460 women reserves during WWII • Only a small group remained in 1945 • Integrated into the Regular Marine Corps

  3. Changes Continued • Blacks • First served during Revolutionary War • Segregation began in 1798 (reorganization) • Began Integration in 1940’s(Pres. Roosevelt) • Blacks had separate training facilities • First black commissioned officer in 1948

  4. WWII Demobilization • 1945 = 485,000 Marines on duty • Congress declared that the Corp’s peacetime strength should not exceed 107,000. • 1947 = 85,000 Marines on duty

  5. The Korean War • 25 June 1950:North Korean People’s Army(NKPA)crossed the 38th Parallel into South Korea.

  6. Korea • Gen. MacArthur asked for the Marines to repel the North Korean attack. • Marines went to the Pusan Perimeter to assist the US Army. • After securing the Pusan Perimeter, the Marines prepared to attack at Inchon.

  7. Amphibious Assault on Inchon • 1st Marine Regiment commanded by Col. Chesty Puller. • Inchon’s tides change30 feetin 3 hours • 15 Sep 1950: Unopposed attack on Inchon • 25 Sep 1950: Marines advanced to Seoul • 1st MAR. DIV. Heads for Wonson and then the Chosin Reservoir.

  8. The Chosin Reservoir • OBJECTIVE: Seize Hydroelectric Station • 2 Nov, Enroute: Encountered Chinese Communist Forces • Chinese Retreated & Marines moved to Koto-Ri • 13 Nov: 1st Regiment advanced to quickly and reached the reservoir to soon. • The 8th Army was still 80 miles away from being in place on the left flank of the Marines.

  9. “Frozen” Chosen continued • 27 Nov: Marines ordered to move, they began to move and attack west. • At night the temperature would drop to –20 F. • 8 Chinese Divisionscame out of the mountains and surrounded the Marines. • The Marines had to fight their way out or be destroyed.

  10. Attacking in a different direction • Marines fought their way back to Hungnam by 2 Dec. • Marines casualties = 730 lives • Chinese casualties = 25,000 lives

  11. Last Major Offensive • The Punch Bowl • Large circular valley • Several inconclusive battles • Poor Air Support from Air Force

  12. The End of the War • 27 July 1953 : Ceasefire • DEVELOPMENTS : • Cold weather boots • Flak Jackets • Helicopters

  13. President Truman • Signed Public Law 416 which restructured the Marine Corps • 3 Divisions and 3 Air Wings

  14. Marine Corps Acronyms: • N.C.O. • Non Commissioned Officer • C.C.F. • Chinese Communist Forces • M.S.R. • Main Supply Route • N.K.P.A. • North Korean Peoples Army • R.O.K. • Republic Of Korea

  15. Questions