Chapter 15 Art
What We Will Learn • How do anthropologists define the arts? • What are the various functions of art in society? • How do music and dance reflect other aspects of a culture?
Art • This painting, Sea Swing, was one of many paintings by artist Jonathan Green which was combined with dance and music by the Columbia (SC) City Ballet in their 2005 performance entitled “Off the Wall and Onto the Stage.”
Tattooing • In parts of Polynesia, full-body tattooing is considered a significant form of art.
Question • According to the text, art should make a symbolic statement about what is being portrayed. In other words, art should communicate information • by being technically skilled. • by being transformational. • by being creative. • by being representational.
Answer: d • According to the text, art should make a symbolic statement about what is being portrayed. In other words, art should communicate information: by being representational.
Functions of Art • Emotional Gratification for the Individual • Contributes to Social Integration • Social Control • Preserving or Challenging the Status Quo
Art and Government • This bronze head of Lenin, the largest in the world, located in the city of Ulan-Ude, Russia, is a piece of art commissioned by the communist government to evoke positive feelings about one of its founders.
Liberation Theater • A type of theatrical production using high levels of audience participation and aimed at bringing about social change.
Question • Quite apart from whatever benefits art may have for the total society, it is generally agreed that art is a source of ________ for both the artist and the viewer. • conversation • pride • personal gratification • embarrassment
Answer: c • Quite apart from whatever benefits art may have for the total society, it is generally agreed that art is a source of personal gratification for both the artist and the viewer.
Graphic And Plastic Arts • The Western notion of graphic and plastic arts usually refers to painting, sculpture, printmaking, and architecture. • The anthropological definition also includes such art forms as weaving, embroidery, tailoring, jewelry making, and tattooing and other forms of body decoration.
Utility and Art • Art comes in many forms, some utilitarian, others not. • Here a man weaves a rug in Rajasthan, India.
Ethnomusicology • Ethnomusicologists would be interested in studying both the music of this Ukrainian andura player and how that music reflects the wider culture of which it is a part.
Four Major Concerns of Ethnomusicology • Ideas about music • How cultures distinguish between music and nonmusic. • The functions music has for the society. • Whether music is seen as beneficial or harmful to the society. • What constitutes beautiful music? • On what occasions should music be played?
Four Major Concerns of Ethnomusicology • Social structure of music • The social relationships between musicians. • How a society distinguishes between musicians on the basis of age, gender, race,ethnicity, or education.
Four Major Concerns of Ethnomusicology • Characteristics of music: • How the style of music in different cultures varies (scale, melody, harmony, timing). • The different musical genres that are found in a society (lullaby, sea chantey, hard rock, and so on). • The nature of musical texts (words). • How music is composed. • How music is learned and transmitted.
Four Major Concerns of Ethnomusicology • Material culture of music: • The nature of the musical instruments found in a culture. • Who makes musical instruments and how are they distributed? • How are musical tastes reflected in the instruments used?
Functions of Dance • Psychological – helping people cope more effectively with tensions and aggressive feelings. • Political - expressing political values and attitudes, showing allegiance to political leaders, and controlling behavior.
Functions of Dance • Religiously – various methods of communicating with supernatural forces. • Socially - articulating and reinforcing relationships between members of the society. • Educationally - passing on the cultural traditions, values, and beliefs from one generation to the next.
Capoeira • A combination of dance, martial arts, and acrobatics originating among Brazilian slaves of the sixteenth century.
Verbal Art • Myths are stories of our search for significance, meaning, and truth. • Legends are told as if they were true, but often are only partially true or not at all true. They attempt to explain the establishment of local customs, the movement of populations from one land to another, or the traits of folk heroes. • Folktales have no particular basis in history and exist largely for the purpose of entertainment.
Film • The film Atanarjuat: The Fast Runner, by Inuit filmmaker Zacharias Kunuk, was shown in theaters around the world and received the award for “best first feature film” at the Cannes Film Festival in 2001.
Glass Art • A sculpture entitled “Wolf Crest Hat,” by Preston Singletary, a Native American glass artist.