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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSOR

DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSOR

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DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSOR

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  1. DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSOR FIXED POINT/FLOATING POINT DSP HARVARD/VON NEUMANN ARCHITECTURE RISC/CISC ARCHITECTURE PIPELINING Architecture of TMS320C5X (Features-Description) Addressing Modes

  2. Introduction • Application specific Processor. • Manufacturers: Texas Instruments, Analog Devices, Motorola • Two types: 16 bit fixed point and 32 bit floating point TMS320C5X: • Fifth generation • 16 bit fixed point processor • Instruction sets are upward compatible.

  3. FIXED/FLOATING POINT PROCESSOR • 16 BIT FIXED POINT PROCESSOR: C1X, C2X, C2XX, C5X • 32 BIT FLOATING POINT PROCESSOR: C3X, C4X

  4. HARVARD/VON NEUMANN ARCHITECTURE

  5. VON NEUMANN

  6. HARVARD ARCHITECTURE

  7. MODIFIED HARVARD ARCHITECTURE

  8. RISC/CISC ARCHITECTURE CISC MULT 2:3, 5:2 RISC LOAD A, 2:3LOAD B, 5:2PROD A, BSTORE 2:3, A

  9. What is CISC Complex Instruction Set Computer FEATURES: Instructions can operate directly on memory Small number of general purpose registers Instructions take multiple clocks to execute

  10. What is RISC? Reduced Instruction Set Computer RISC is a CPU design that recognizes only a limited number of instructions Simple instructions Instructions are executed quickly

  11. Features of RISC “Reduced” instruction set Executes a series of simple instruction instead of a complex instruction Instructions are executed within one clock cycle Incorporates a large number of general registers for arithmetic operations to avoid storing variables on a stack in memory Only the load and store instructions operate directly onto memory Pipelining = speed

  12. PIPELINING Fetching the next instruction while the current instruction is decoding. The fundamental idea is to split the processing of a computer instruction into a series of independent steps. • FETCH • DECODE • MEMORY READ • EXECUTE

  13. Instruction cycle: Fetching,decoding,memory read and execution of one instruction Machine Cycle: Memory or I/O operation requires a particular time period T-States: Each machine cycle consists of 3 to 6 clock cycles Program counter: Points the address of the next instruction to be fetched Stack Pointer: Points the return address.

  14. ADDRESSING MODES Direct addressing Indirect addressing Immediate addressing Memory Mapped register addressing Circular addressing

  15. Immediate addressing Load either a 16 bit constant or a constant of length 13, 9 0r 7. Accordingly it is referred to as long immediate or Short immediate addressing mode. Indicated by symbol # Eg ADD #56h ; ADD #4321h

  16. DIRECT ADDRESSING Eg: ADD 98h,5

  17. INDIRECT ADDRESING

  18. MEMORY MAPPED REGISTER ADDRESSING LAMM LMMR SAMM SMMR

  19. CIRCULAR ADDRESSING Algorithms such as convolution, Correlation and FIR use Circular buffers in Memory

  20. ARCHITECTURE - DESCRIPTIONS • Running at 40MHz • Execution time of single instruction is 50nsec • On-Chip memory include 10k words of RAM and 2K words of the ROM. • The Function block is divided into 4 sub blocks. • BUS STRUCTURE • CPU • ONCHIP MEMORY • ONCHIP PERIPHERALS

  21. BUS STRUCTURE • PROGRAM BUS interconnects CPU and Program memory • PROGRAM ADDRESS BUS Provides address to program memory space for read and write. • DATA BUS Interconnects various elements in CPU and data memory • DATA ADDRESS BUS Provides address to access the data memory space

  22. CPU • Central Arithmetic Logic Unit MAC [16x16 parallel multiplier, 32 bit Accumulator, 32- bit ACC Buffer, Product register, additional shifter] • Parallel Logic Unit – logical operation • Auxiliary register arithmetic Unit – [AR0 – AR7, ARP, indirect addressing] • Memory Mapped registers - [SFR, page 0 (00-5F)] • Program Controller • Program counter • Status and Control register – 4 status and control registers. • Hardware stack - 8 levels deep, 16 bit wide • Program memory Address generation logic - address gen by program counter • Instruction register – hold the opcode.

  23. ONCHIP MEMORY • Memory address range: 224kwordsx16bits • Memory space is divided into 4 memory segments: 64k words - program memory space 64k words - local data memory space 64k words - input/ output ports 32 k words – Global data memory space On chip memory includes: • PROM - MP/MC • Data/Program single access RAM - [configured as program/data or both] • Data/Program dual access RAM [B0 – program /Data]

  24. ON-CHIP PERIPHERALS • Clock generator.-internal oscillator &PLL • Hardware timer.-generate CPU interrupts • Software programmable wait state generator. -Can extend external bus cycles up to 7 m/c cycles • General purpose I/O pins. - Branch control i/p(BIO) to monitor pheripheral device status -XF pin signals to external devices via S/w • Parallel I/O ports.-64 parallel i/o ports • Serial port interface. • Buffered serial port. • TDM serial port. • Host port interface.- to interface host device to c5x • User unmaskable interrupts.- interrupt due to external devices