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Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function

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Cell Structure and Function

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  1. Cell Structure and Function

  2. Attributes of cells A. Plasma membrane B. DNA C. Cytoplasm D. Obtain energy and nutrients from their environment

  3. Cell Size • 1–100µm 100 µm – 1/10 of a millimeter; 100 µm – 0.00394 inches; 100 µm – thickness of a coat of paint; 100 µm – length of a dust particle; 2. Why is there a limit to cell size? a. Surface-to-volume ratio b. Distance from surface to center

  4. tallest trees adult human chicken egg frog embryo most eukaryotic cells mitochondrion most bacteria virus proteins diameter of DNA double helix atoms

  5. Cell types Prokaryotic—no nucleus, circular DNA, ribosomes Eukaryotic—larger, nucleus, linear chromosomes, membranous organelles

  6. Prokaryotic Cells • Have no membrane-bound organelles • Include true bacteria • On earth 3.8 million years • Found nearly everywhere • Spores in each breath; intestines • Naturally in soil, air, hot springs

  7. CLASS TEACH

  8. nucleoid (DNA) ribosomes food granule prokaryotic flagellum plasma membrane cell wall cytoplasm

  9. Eukaryotic Cells • Have numerous internal structures • Various types & forms • Plants, animals, fungi, protists • Multicellular organisms

  10. CLASS TEACH

  11. nuclear pore chromatin (DNA) nucleus nucleolus nuclear envelope flagellum intermediate filaments cytoplasm plasma membrane rough endoplasmic reticulum ribosome lysosome microtubules smooth endoplasmic reticulum Golgi complex free ribosome vesicle mitochondrion vesicle

  12. microtubules (part of cytoskeleton) mitochondrion chloroplast Golgi complex central vacuole smooth endoplasmic reticulum vesicle cell wall rough endoplasmic reticulum plasma membrane nucleolus nuclear pore nucleus chromatin nuclear envelope intermediate filaments free ribosome ribosomes

  13. Eukaryotic cell structure • Nucleus is control center of the cell • 1. Membrane bound (nuclear envelope) • 2. Contains nucleoli; synthesizes ribosomal RNA • 3. DNA in chromosomes (DNA and proteins)

  14. nuclear envelope nucleolus nuclear pores chromatin

  15. nucleus nuclear pores

  16. chromatin chromosome

  17. 0.05 micrometers

  18. Eukaryotic cell structure Organelles Endoplasmic reticulum consists of folded membranes attached to the nucleus Rough ERis site of protein synthesis and protein secretion

  19. rough endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes 0.5 micrometers smooth endoplasmic reticulum 0.5 micrometers vesicles

  20. Eukaryotic Cell Structure Organelles (cont.) Ribosomesassemble amino acid into polypeptide chains • a. Associated with the ER • b. Composed of RNA and proteins

  21. ribosomes rough endoplasmic reticulum 0.5 micrometers

  22. vesicles smooth endoplasmic reticulum 0.5 micrometers

  23. Eukaryotic Cell Structure • Organelles (cont.) • Golgi apparatus are membranous sacs associated with ER • a. Processing and transport of proteins, lipids • b. Synthesis and transport of polysaccharides

  24. vesicles from ER vesicles leaving Golgi complex Golgi complex

  25. Eukaryotic cell structure • Organelles (cont.) • Lysosomes are Golgi-derived vesicles containing digestive enzymes

  26. vesicles from ER vesicles leaving Golgi complex Golgi complex

  27. Eukaryotic Cells: OrganellesEnergy sources for cell activities • Mitochondria provide energy for cellular functions (respiration) • a. Membrane bound, numerous • b. Matrix/cristae • c. Have their own DNA and ribosomes; self-replicate

  28. 5 micrometers

  29. Eukaryotic Cells: OrganellesEnergy sources for cell activities PLANTS • Chloroplasts—function in photosynthesis • 1) Green—contain chlorophyll pigment • 2) Stroma/grana (thylakoid stacks) • 3) Have their own DNA and ribosomes; self-replicate • 4) Up to 100 per cell

  30. CLASS TEACH MITOCHONDRIA CHLOROPLAST

  31. Eukaryotic Cells: Organelles • Cytoskeleton • Internal infrastructure • Surface structures • extensions of the plasma membrane • aid in movement of simple organisms

  32. actin subunits subunit tubulin subunit

  33. Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes • Similarities & differences • Both surrounded by plasma membrane, but very different • Prokaryotes – Archaebacteria and Eubacteria • Eukaryotes – everything else

  34. CLASS TEACH Prokaryotes & Eukaryotes Similarities & Differences

  35. Plant & Animal Cells • Similarities • Both constructed from eukaryotic cells • Both contain similar organelles • Both surrounded by cell membrane

  36. Plant & Animal Cells • Differences • Plants have • Cell wall – provides strength & rigidity • Have chloroplasts, photosynthetic • Animals have • Other organelle not found in plants (lysosomes formed from Golgi) • Centrioles, important in cell division

  37. Brief Look at Viruses • Viruses are acellular • Not considered to be living • Cause serious diseases in most organisms