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Operation 25 & Operation Marita

Operation 25 & Operation Marita

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Operation 25 & Operation Marita

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  1. Operation 25 & Operation Marita Emily Geiger Arian Hafezi Julia Lioubarski Jessica Ma

  2. Thesis After the successful coup by the Yugoslav Partisans in Yugoslavia, the old government was overthrown, and the Tripartite Pact to ally with Germany was threatened. At the same time, Adolf Hitler needed a plan to conquer Greece in an attempt to clean up the mess left behind by Mussolini. In response to both events, Hitler organized two operations, Operation 25 and Operation Marita, in an attempt to gain the upper hand in World War II. The internal conflicts within Yugoslavia combined with the German tactic to attack from all sides eventually led to the annexation of Yugoslavia and Greece.

  3. Causes • Yugoslavia was going to join the Axis side of WWII, but then anti-German and anti-Fascist resistance in the country had a coup and overthrew the leader of Yugoslavia • New government tried to dissolve the Tripartite pact with Hitler • Hitler unhappy, decides to invade Yugoslavia to get it back • At the same time, Germany wanted to invade Greece because of Italy’s failure earlier in annexing Greece • The Germans expected Greece to capitulate easily, placing the capital of Athens and Greek ports in German hands • Greek bases for the Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine would solidify German control over the northeastern Mediterranean and assist in supplying the AfrikaKorps

  4. What Happened: Yugoslavia • April 6, 1941, Germany invaded both Greece and Yugoslavia • The country was attacked from 3 sides and could not hold back the Germans • Yugoslavia fell apart quickly because of the tensions between different ethnic groups in the country, mainly Serbs and Croats • April 17, Germany successfully defeats Yugoslavia

  5. What Happened: Greece • Greece stood for longer with the help of British troops on their side • Germany sends troops through Yugoslavia into Northern Greece • German troops force British and Greek troops to retreat to Crete • Germany defeats Greece on April 30th.

  6. Belgrade-place where Germany later based their military in Yugoslavia Led by Wilhelm List

  7. Resistance Yugoslavia Greece Had the help of Britain on their side Various resistance groups, the first major one being the National Liberation Front Blew up key bridges to hinder German transportation Main Resistance: Yugoslav Partisans • Josip Broz Tito, a communist leader of the Yugoslav partisans, led the biggest resistance force against Nazi Germany • “Death to fascism, freedom to the people!” was the slogan • Wanted to create a socialist Yugoslav nation

  8. Key Leaders Adolf Hitler • German fascist dictator who ordered the invasion of Operation 25 and Operation Marita Operation 25 (Yugoslavia) • Josip Broz Tito • Communist leader of the Yugoslav Partisans in resisting German occupation • Regarded as the most resistant force leader • Later becomes president of Yugoslavia • Prince Paul of Yugoslavia • Regent of Yugoslavia before German invasion • Didn’t want to join Axis because he feared a revolution in Yugoslavia but forced by Germans to sign the Tripartite Pact • The people revolted Operation Marita (Greece) • Wilhelm List • German field Marshall for Hitler during WWII • forced Greek troops to push back and retreat • Lead the 12th Army in the invasion

  9. Outcome • Partition of Yugoslavia and Greece • Germany annexed northern and eastern Slovenia • Italy annexed southern and eastern Slovenia • Hungary annexed regions in northeastern Yugoslavia • Germany and Italy divided Croatia into zones of influence---stationed their troops there • Germany gained a lot more lands

  10. Impact and Why It Matters • Led to the Battle of Crete in which many British soldiers were bombed on the island of Crete by German Luftwaffe airborne attacks • Thought to have delayed Operation Barbarossa • Germany gains even more land in Europe

  11. Works Cited Houlihan, Thomas. "1941 Timeline." World War II Database. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2014. Heaton, Colin D. "Invasion of Yugoslavia: Waffen SS Captain Fritz Klingenberg and the Capture of Belgrade During World War II." History Net Where History Comes. World War II Magazine, n.d. Web. 09 May 2014. Shroeder, Jay. "Josip Broz Tito." Josip Broz Tito. Ohio State University, n.d. Web. 10 May 2014. "Collaboration and Resistance." History. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 May 2014. Chen, Peter. "Josip Tito." WW2DB RSS. World War II Database, n.d. Web. 12 May 2014. Chen, Peter. "Wilhelm List." WW2DB RSS. World War II Database, n.d. Web. 13 May 2014. Hart, Stephen A. "Partisans: War in the Balkans 1941 - 1945." BBC News. BBC, 17 Feb. 2011. Web. 14 May 2014. "Prince Paul of Yugoslavia." A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 13 May 2014. "Invasion of Yugoslavia (April 6, 1941) Summary – WWII German Attack."TotallyHistory Invasion of Yugoslavia Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2014.