Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA Technology Genetic Engineering • Technology that involves manipulating the DNA of one organism in order to insert the DNA of another organism • Agricultural • Medicinal • Forensic Science
Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA Technology • **Anelectric current is used to separate DNA fragments according to the size of the fragments in a process called gel electrophoresis. • When an electric current is applied, the DNA fragments move toward the positive end of the gel. • The smaller fragments move farther faster than the larger ones.
Genetics and Biotechnology Gel electrophoresis 13.2 DNA Technology • The unique pattern created based on the size of the DNA fragment can be compared to known DNA fragments for identification.
DNA fingerprinting • Gel Electrophoresis is an example of how this is done. • Every person is genetically different, so DNA fingerprints are different except for identical twins.
DNA fingerprinting applications • used to identify or eliminate suspects • determine paternity of a child, or establish other family relationships • identify a deceased person
Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA Technology • Genetically engineered organisms • to study the expression of a particular gene. • to select traits that might be beneficial to humans. Genetically engineered bollworm
Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA Technology DNA Tools • Genome total DNA in the nucleus of each cell. Transgenic Tobacco Plant with Firefly gene
Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA Technology • Restriction enzymes recognize and bind to specific DNA sequences and cuts the DNA within the sequence. • Isolate specific genes of the genome. • Used for recombinant DNA or gene cloning.
Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA Technology • **EcoRIspecifically cuts DNA containing the sequence GAATTC. • The ends of the DNA fragments, called sticky ends
Restriction Enzyme Ends • Some ends are considered blunt also because it does not leave “open” nucleotides
Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA Technology • The newly generated DNA molecule with DNA from different sources is called recombinant DNA. • Often use circular DNA of bacteria called a plasmid
Genetic EngineeringAKA: Recombinant DNA or transgenic organisms • DNA is split(restriction enzymes) /new inserted
Applications of recombinant DNA • Bacteria: used to produce hormones and antibiotics • Plants: made to be resistant to herbicides • Animals: cloning, replacement of genes which cause disorders
Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA Technology • Some of the bacterial cells take up the recombinant plasmid DNA through a process called transformation.
Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA Technology • Large numbers of identical bacteria, each containing the inserted DNA molecules, can be produced through a process called cloning. Gene Cloning
Cloning Cloning is an asexual form of reproduction. All the child's genes would come from a body cell of a single individual:
Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA Technology • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) atechnique for making billions of copies of a piece of DNA. • The process creates a chain of many nucleotides, and the chain is a strand of DNA. • Used in genetic fingerprinting
Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA Technology Biotechnology • *Organisms, genetically engineered by inserting a gene from another organism, are called transgenic organisms.
Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA Technology *Transgenic Animals • Scientists produce most transgenic animals in laboratories for biological research. • Mice, fruit flies, and the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans
Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA Technology Transgenic Plants • Genetically engineered cotton resists insect infestation of the bolls. • Sweet-potato plants are resistant to a virus that could kill most of the African harvest. • Rice plants with increased iron and vitamins could decrease malnutrition.
Genetics and Biotechnology 13.3 The Human Genome The Human Genome Project • The goal of the Human Genome Project (HGP) was to determine the sequence of the approximately three billion nucleotides that make up human DNA and to identify all of the approximately 20,000–25,000 human genes.
Decoding the sequence of the human genome can be compared to Genetics and Biotechnology reading a book that was printed in code. 13.3 The Human Genome
A technique aimed at correcting mutated genes that cause human diseases is called gene therapy. Genetics and Biotechnology 13.3 The Human Genome • Scientists insert a normal gene into a chromosome to replace a dysfunctional gene. • Genomics is the study of an organism’s genome.
Genetics and Biotechnology 13.2 DNA Technology
13.1 **Hybrids: When different forms of a trait are crossed to produce offspring with specific traits Selective Breeding: When desired traits are selected to be passed on to future generations