Violence in the Media Mike Consalvi
Joseph Goebbels • Came into contact with Nazi party in 1923 • Hitler was in imprisoned in 1923 after the “Beer Hall Putsch” – a failed attempt by the Nazi party and German patriots to seize control of Munich, Germany. • Nazi party was split in two – nationalists/socialists – two parties battled against each other for full control • GregorStrasser was the leader while Hitler was gone • Hitler returns from imprisonment in 1926, regains power, and unifies the two sides under one Nazi flag
Joseph Goebbels • Upon Hitler’s return, he appoints Goebbels as the “Gauleiter,” or leader, of Berlin. • Goebbels discovers his talent as a propagandist as the editor of the Berlin Nazi newspaper, Der Agriff (The Attack) and as the author of a stream of Nazi posters and handbills • Also discovers his oratory skills, second only to Hitler
Joseph Goebbels • Hitler becomes the Chancellor of the Reich in 1933, and Goebbels is not included in his cabinet • As propaganda head of the ruling party, Goebbels orders radios stations to broadcast Hitler’s celebratory parade in honor of his assumption to offfice • On March 13, 1933, Goebbels is rewarded for his role in bringing Hitler and the Nazi party into prominence by being appointed the “Reich Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda” and attaining a seat on the cabinet
Joseph Goebbels • Goebbels establishes divisions (or chambers) of the Propaganda Ministry: press, radio, film, theater, music, literature, and publishing • Jewish and anti-Nazi artists were forced from Germany with the threat of concentration camps • The content of every newspaper, book, novel, play, film, broadcast, and concert, from local to national levels, was subject to supervision by the Propaganda Ministy • No one could release ANY form of media unless they were part of one of the Reich chambers
Joseph Goebbels • Goebbels secured a large budget for the Propaganda Ministry which allowed him to bribe and threaten the artists, offering generous salaries and subsidies for those in the arts who cooperated with him • After the depression, most struggling artists found it hard to refuse
Joseph Goebbels • Goebbels ensured film studios continued to produce comedies and romances, which would draw mass audiences to the theaters where they would be subject to propaganda news reels and Nazi epics • Promoted the sales of cheap radios, organizing free concerts, staging art exhibitions in small towns and establishing mobile cinemas to bring the movies to every village
Joseph Goebbels • Paris, November 1938- a Jewish youth named Herschel Grynszpan shot German diplomat, Ernst von Rath, in revenge for the deportation of his family to Poland and the persecution of German Jews in general.
Joseph Goebbels • On November 9th, the night Rath died from his wounds, Goebbels was with Hitler celebrating the anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch with a large crowd of veteran Nazis • Goebbels informed Hitler that spontaneous anti-Jewish violence broke out in German cities • Hitler approved of this, and Goebbels authorized a nationwide pogrom against the Jews • Pogrom – violent mob attack, generally against Jews, and often condoned by law enforcement, characterized by killings and/or destruction of homes, properties, businesses and religious centers
Joseph Goebbels • “[Hitler] decides: demonstrations should be allowed to continue. The police should be withdrawn. For once the Jews should get the feel of popular anger... I immediately gave the necessary instructions to the police and the Party. Then I briefly spoke in that vein to the Party leadership. [Stormy applause]. All are instantly at the phones. Now people will act.”
Joseph Goebbels • “Kristallnacht” – The Night of Broken Glass, November 9-10, 1938 • Nazi troopers and civilians went on a rampage of anti-Jewish violence and destruction, killing 200 Jews, destroying over 1000 synagogues and hundreds of Jewish businesses and homes, and dragging 30,000 Jews off to concentration camps. The long-term effect was that 80,000 Jews were forced to flee Germany/Austria, most leaving behind all of their property in the desperation to escape
Joseph Goebbels • Foreign opinion reacted with horror, bringing a sudden end to appeasement between Nazi Germany and the other Western democracies • Appeasement – diplomatic policy to avoid war by making concessions to aggressors
Joseph Goebbels • Goebbels pogrom brought Germany significantly closer to war • Nazi leaders were furious with Goebbels actions because they had not been consulted beforehand • 1939 (one year later), World War II begins with the invasion of Poland by Germany • May 1, 1945 (one day after Hitler’s suicide) – Goebbels ordered a Nazi dentist to kill his six children by morphine and cyanide injections, and then kills his wife along with himself
Joseph Goebbels • “We (Nazi party)… intend a principled transformation in the worldview of our entire society, a revolution of the greatest possible extent that will leave nothing out, changing the life of our nation in every regard... It would not have been possible for us to take power or to use it in the ways we have without the radio and the airplane. It is no exaggeration to say that the German revolution, at least in the form it took, would have been impossible without the airplane and the radio.”
1960s • The most common form of media during the 60’s was the newspaper. Most adults read about current and future events via their local or national daily papers. • Another popular form of media in this era was AM/FM Radio. Many people turned to radio for recreational activities such as ‘story time’ for kids, where a narrator told a piece of a story each day. • However, the 1960’s gave rise to one of the most popular forms of media today: the television.
1960s • In previous years, televisions were mainly owned by the upper class due to their high price (between $300-$500, whereas the average annual salary was around $4,000). • However, as the average salary rose to about $6,000/year and the average cost of TVs dropped to about $300, more and more families sought out to own them. • By the 1960’s, 93% of all households owned a television. With this rise in ownership, and, respectively, the rise of TV programming, the concern for effects of the television shows began to emerge in parents.
1960s • One controversial illness that arose during the 60’s was ‘Mean World Syndrome,’ coined in the late 50’s by George Gerbner, a pioneer TV researcher. He believed that TV had a large influence on the ignorant masses. • "Fearful people are more dependent, more easily manipulated and controlled, more susceptible to deceptively simple, strong, tough measures and hard-line measures" -- Gerbner • Mean World Syndrome refers to the altered perception that one obtains when viewing the negative events on TV. Someone with MWS may believe, based on some events portrayed on the news, that the world is much more dangerous than it actually is.
1960s • It was a difficult time to ignore the effects of Mean World Syndrome while so much went on during the 60’s. It was a very big time of change for many Americans. A multitude of violent events occurred via television that included: • The assassination of JFK • The televising of boxing; Cassius Clay becomes World Heavyweight champ • The Watts Riots • The assassination of Malcolm X • The Vietnam War • Star Trek televised • Firs t Super Bowl aired on TV • Martin Luther King, Jr. assassinated • Robert F. Kennedy Assassinated
1960s • With so much concern toward the youth and their exposure to violence, there were many different experiments that were conducted to solidify the belief that TV violence had an effect on children. • One Lab experiment exposed some children to a clip of an actor hitting an inflatable doll. After viewing the clips, these children performed more violent acts than ones not exposed to the clip. • Another study ‘demonstrated that TV habits of children in the 1960s were a significant predictor of adult aggression, even criminal behavior, regardless of children’s initial aggressiveness, IQ, social status, or parenting style. In this study, which spans more than 20 years, boys who preferred and viewed more violent programming at age 8 were more likely to be aggressive as teenagers and have • arrests and convictions as adults for interpersonal crimes such as spousal and child abuse, murder, • and aggravated assault’ (Huesmann et. al.) • In 1969, The National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence stated: “Violence on television encourages violent forms of behavior. . . We do not suggest that television is a principal cause of violence in society. We do suggest that it is a contributing factor.”
1970s • As the 1970s approached, advertisers were becoming well aware of the demographics of who their primary audiences were. They began to target the youth, as they tended to be more susceptible to commercial messages. Due to the youth being very involved culturally, socially, and politically, major networks such as CBS responded to advertisers with the same vision as to targeting the youth with the media.
1970s • In 1968, both civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr.and liberal presidential candidate Robert Kennedy were assassinated; riots and protests were common on campuses across the country, and major protests took place during the Democratic convention in Chicago; and the Tet Offensive was launched in Vietnam. • Within four years, entertainment TV would look nothing like it did in 1969. The “real world” based on social, familial, and national dysfunction, which had been ignored by TV for so long, were about to break into prime time.
1970s • Shows such as All In The Family depicted subject matter issues that were pertinent to American life in the 1970s, featuring stories about agnosticism, rape, radical politics, racism, and a host of other previously forbidden topics. Its characters were loud and sometimes brash, and the language used was often profane, racist, or otherwise offensive. • For the first time in TV series history, an onscreen warning preceded the broadcast, preparing viewers for the controversial nature of the program to follow. the show broke ground in its depiction of issues previously considered unsuitable for U.S. network television comedy, such as racism, homosexuality, women's liberation, rape, abortion, breast cancer, and the Vietnam War. • Through depicting these controversial issues, the series became arguably one of television's most influential comedic programs, as it injected the sitcom format with real-life conflicts.
1970s • The top rated shows that depicted “real life” issues were The Mary Tyler Moore Show, All in the Familyand M*A*S*H.
1970s • Controversy followed many television networks, as coverage and negative depictions of the Vietnam War was portrayed. Local and network news were limited as they were broadcasted only for 30 minutes during the hours of 7:30pm-11pm as the Prime Time Access Rule came into effect. This gave the chance for many networks to show their highest rating programs during these times.
1970s • In 1975 the chairman of the FCC, Richard Wiley, reportedly encouraged the networks to limit violent programming to time slots after 9:00 pm Eastern Standard Time. • Arthur Taylor, then president of CBS, became the chief advocate of what became known as “family viewing time” (8:00–9:00 pm, as far as the networks were concerned), and he enlisted the support of the other networks as well. A Los Angeles federal district court disallowed the self-regulatory action in 1976.
1970s • publication of the Surgeon General’s Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior’s five-volume report in 1972 and stated “the overwhelming consensus and the unanimous Scientific Advisory Committee’s report indicates that televised violence, indeed, does have an adverse effect on certain members of our society.” • Litigation cases were made against networks, as they were accused of being the prime sources of violence within the youth.
1970s • during the mid-1970s A changing cultural climate, brought on in part by the U.S. defeat in the Vietnam War and by the Watergate Scandal. • students, mothers, or anti-establishment hippies were in opposition to the Vietnam War and began the American Peace movements. In turn, due to the rise of sensitive media subjects, network executives and television producers believed that audiences might be ready for a return to escapism.
1980sMedia Growth in the 80s INCLINE DECLINE Newspapers Publishers merged/took over USA Today launched in 1982 New content and design Covered local and nationwide news Sports, weather, business, & entertainment • Publications; magazines Family, divorce, technology • Cable Television • Cable News Network (CNN) • Twentieth Century Fox • Fox • Additional programming • Disney Channel • HBO • Showtime • Pay-per-view
1980s80s TV Theme Family-oriented subjects ↓ Aggressive/Powerful Programs • Sensationalism is what mass media used to over-emphasize or exaggeratea story or subject matter to make it sound more appealing to the audience
1980s80s TV Theme • Street language • Nudity • Violence • Cartoons • TV Shows • Talk Shows • Talk Shows • “Common Folk” • Related with audience • Less expensive • “Talk Show Confessional” • Morton Downey Jr. & Geraldo Rivera • Introduced hategroups & on-air physical violence
1980sSignificant • Controversial • Miami Vice (1984) • The Oprah Winfrey Show (1986) • Married with Children (1987) • Live with Regis & Kathie Lee (1988) • The Simpsons (1989) • The Joan Rivers Show (1989)
1980sMedia Use & Cause of Crime • In 1986, 82% of American adults watched television daily • average household had the television set on for seven hours a day • Americans watched an average of 39 minutes of television news daily • Early 1980s the cause of crime was mostly due to poverty • Poor market labor prospects for less skilled workers • Late 1980s there was a significant increase in drug-related crimes • Cocaine became plentiful & cheap
1980sWho to Blame? • “Assessing Quality in Local TV News” • A study over a 4 year period to determine the ratio between public affair stories vs. stories on human-interests • Most appealing story became the issue that dominated the news • Revolved around television’s story line • The media is responsible for portraying violence • influences the public’s perception regarding crime
1990sHip Hop & Rap Music Gun Use Gang Violence Killing People Kidnapping/Robbery Degrading Women Drug Dealing/Drug Use Offensive Language • Fresh Gear • Having Fun and Partying • Boomboxes • Graffiti/Breakdancing
1990s http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DHQxtgPp7fM • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XXHIwllxkBk
1990sEvents in the News Columbine High School • April 20, 1999 • 12 people killed, 24 injured • The shooting resulted in an increased emphasis on school security, and a moral panic aimed at goth culture, social outcasts, gun culture, the use of pharmaceutical anti-depressants by teenagers, teenage Internet use and violent video games. O.J. Simpson Murder Case • June 12, 1994 • Ex-wife Nicole Brown and Ronald Goldman • Police chase • Not Guilty Death of Princess Diana • August 31, 1997 • Car Accident in Paris • 2000 people attended funeral, 2 billion watched on television (one of the most watched events in history
2000sTechnology Boom & Violence • This technology boom has allowed media to portray violent acts in more varying, realistic and graphic ways, never before seen. • The technology boom in the 2000s has allowed viewers to actually participate in the acts of violence rather than simply view it.
2000sTechnology Boom • The rapid rate at which technology has grown in the last decade has given rise to various types of new media. • Smartphones, tablets, advanced video games, more realistic interactive media, along with the continued success of the internet and computers.
2000sMedia Technology and Violence Continued… • Games like Call of Duty, Modern Warfare and Resident Evil allow participants to carry out acts of violence, rather than simply view it.
2000sMedia Technology and Violence Continued… • Smartphones like the iPhone and the Android; as well as other microcomputers such as: iPad and Nexus allow violent media to be viewed anytime anywhere.
2000sMedia Technology and Censorship • While movies, music, videogames and most other forms of media have censorship guidelines, the internet/computers remain one of the simplest and most abundant ways to access violent media without censorship. • Websites such as Rotten.com and various message boards post often shockingly graphic violent media.
2000sMedia Technology and Censorship • About 60% of homes in the United States have access to the internet. This allows the vast majority of our country to access almost any type of violent media, free from censorship.
What do the Experts say? Two general schools of thought: 1.) Violence in the media has increased human propensity for violence. 2.) Violence in the media is an outlet for aggression and violent tendencies.
What do the Studies say? • Overwhelming amount of data suggests a correlation between rising violence in the media and rising incidences of violent crimes. • Crimes rates have steadily increased per decade from the 1950s to 1990s. While the crimes have been decreasing In the last two decades, they are significantly higher than where they started.
Murder • 1962 – 8,530 • 1991 – 24,700 • 2010 – 14,748 Rape • 1960 – 17,190 • 1992 – 109,060 • 2010 – 84,767 Assault • 1960 – 154,320 • 1993 – 1,135,610 • 2010 – 778,901 Burglary • 1960 – 912,100 • 1980 – 3,795,200 • 2010 – 2,159,878 VehicleTheft • 1960 – 328,200 • 1991 – 1,661,700 • 2010 – 737,142