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Violence in Media

Violence in Media

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Violence in Media

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  1. Violence in Media Kristin Kimball 03/12/2012

  2. Media Violence The older generation is obviously exposed to this media violence as well. However, they do not have the same experience of being exposed to this type of media in their younger age. At a young age, minds are developing; their surroundings and what they learn can be influential on how they are going to be when they grow up. Although exposure to media violence is not the main factor of aggression and violence among the younger generation, media violence contributes to this behavior regardless and is an important health risk that should not be ignored. The types of media that violence is portrayed through include: television, movies, music and video games. Media violence is increasingly becoming more common, and it is only natural to question the affects it has on people who are exposed to this type of media. Knowing that technology and media is becoming more prevalent and advanced, the younger generation is exposed to violent media more than the generations ahead of them.

  3. Physical and Mental Health • Research has shown how exposure to media violence is associated with physical and mental health problems for children and adolescents. • These behaviors include, aggression, desensitization to violence, fear, depression, sleep disturbances and nightmares. • “More than 35000 research studies have examined the association between media violence and violent behavior; all but 18 have shown a positive relationship” (Committee on Public Education) • These negative affects to an individual is concerning, especially when considering how much children are exposed to violent media.

  4. Exposure • The National Television Violence study evaluated about 10,000 hours of broadcast programming from 1995 to 1997. • They found that 61 % of the programs portrayed interpersonal violence. Most of this violence was portrayed in an entertaining or glamorized manner. • Surprisingly, the highest proportion of violence was found in children's shows (Committee on Public Education).

  5. What is interpersonal violence? • “Interpersonal violence is defined by the World Health Organization as any behavior within an intimate relationship that causes physical, psychological, or sexual harm to those in the relationship”  (Campus Health Services).

  6. Exposure There was a time when only 10% of American homes had a television (Beresin). This time was the 1950-a time when the medical community was beginning to be concerned with the issue of media violence. (Committee on Public Education) Today, there are televisions in 99% of homes, and over half of all the children have a television in their bedrooms(Beresin).

  7. Television • Having televisions in a child's bedroom is not a good idea. It allows a greater opportunity for children to view programs without the supervision of an adult (Beresin). • Although warnings such as “Explicit Content” or “Viewer discretion advised” appears before a certain television show, that will not stop a child or adolescent from watching the program.

  8. Exposure • It is estimated that American children between the ages of 2 and 18 years spend an average of 6 hours and 32 minutes each day using different types of media. • With the exception of sleeping, studies show that this is more time than they spend on any other activity. • By age 18, the average young person will view an estimated 200,000 acts of violence on television (Committee on Public Education).

  9. Glamorized Violence • Very often violence in music or films are portrayed in a way that makes them seem not as bad as they really are. • Televised programs often portray a hero of some sort that is violent and are rewarded for their behavior. • A prime example of a violent hero is James Bond.

  10. James Bond • James bond is a secret agent who goes on missions. On these missions he comes across difficult tasks and shoots/kills people through his ventures. Very beautiful women are attracted to him and he is rewarded with fancy things such as cars and clothes. James Bond can very easily become a role model for youth. • By watching a movie like James Bond, younger people can think that it is cool to carry guns and shoot bad guys because movie makers often portray it to be that way. • “The typical scenario of using violence for a righteous cause may translate in daily life into a justification for using violence to retaliate against perceived victimizers. Hence, vulnerable youth who have been victimized may be tempted to use violent means to solve problems” (Beresin).

  11. Music • Music is heard almost everywhere. It is heard in stores, restaurants, on the street, TV, in the car on the radio, etc… • Popular music often has a great beat that makes you want to listen or to even start dancing to the song. With most popular songs, once you listen to the lyrics, it can give an individual a different feeling than the feeling you initially got from listening to the beat. • It is easy to disguise violent or derogatory lyrics by using different words or embellishing it with a fun beat.

  12. Music • In the year 2000. A popular music CD featured songs about rape and murder with graphic lyrics and sound effects. This CD led the sales charts and swept the Music Television Video music Awards that year. • “Because children have high levels of exposure, [music] has greater access and time to shape young people's attitudes and actions than do parents or teachers, replacing them as educators, role models, and the primary sources of information about the world and how one behaves in it” (Committee on Public Education).

  13. Video Games • A large portion of media violence that is being exposed to the youth is in the form of video games.Some people think that video games are good for you by claiming that violent video games are a way to allow players to release built up anger (Committee on Public Education). • Although this claim may seem to make sense, there is scientific evidence that contradicts this idea… • Over 130 studies have been conducted on over 130,000 participants around the world. These studies showed that violent video games increased aggressive behavior, aggressive thoughts, physiological arousal and angry feelings (Bushman).

  14. Video Games • Video games have been found to be addictive. Repetition increases their effects of “increased feelings of hostility, expectations that others will behave aggressively, desensitization to the pain of others, and increased likelihood of interacting and responding to others with violence” (Committee on Public Education). • Experimental studies have shown that young people show a decrease in prosocial behavior (feeling concern and having empathy towards others) while having an increase in aggressive thoughts and violent retaliation after playing violent video games. • “Playing violent video games has been found to account for a 13% to 22% increase in adolescents’ violent behavior” (Committee on Public Education).

  15. Call of Duty: Airport Massacre • This video is a scene from the very popular video game, Call of Duty. It portrays violence and a lack of prosocial behavior. (“Call of Duty”)

  16. Call of Duty: Airport Massacre • Being exposed to this airport massacre scene can be alarming at first, however, the more a person is exposed to this type of violence, the easier it is to become desensitized. If an individual is repeatedly exposed to this type of violence, it is easy to see how someone’s prosocial behavior can be decreased.

  17. Are Violent Video Games More Harmful than other Violent Media? • Brad J. Bushman, Ph.D. Professor of Communication and Psychology lists three reasons to believe that violent video games might be more harmful than violent TV programs and movies. • It is known that people learn better when they are actively involved. When you are playing video games, it is more active whereas watching TV is more passive. • If players have the same visual perspective as the killer, they are more likely to identify with the character. “People are more likely to behave aggressively themselves when they identify with a violent character.” • Violent video games often reward the player with points, verbal praise or advancement to the next level. “It is well known that rewarding behavior increases its frequency…In TV programs, reward is not directly tied to the viewer’s behavior” (Bushman).

  18. Are Violent Video Games More Harmful than other Violent Media? • To back up Bushman’s idea of violent video games being more harmful to the individual than violent TV programs or films, there is “empirical data” that was pulled from a study showing how this is correct. • In this study, a group of children were randomly assigned to play a violent video game while another group watched the violent video game being played. • There was also a nonviolent video game control condition. • The results showed that the children who played the video games were more aggressive afterwards than the children who just watched the violent video games being played (Bushman).

  19. Learning about Violence and Learning to Be Violent • How violence is portrayed in media can make the difference between learning to be violent and learning about violence. • Learning about violence: • “Plays like Macbeth and films like Saving Private Ryan treat violence as what it is-a human behavior that causes suffering, loss, and sadness to victims and perpetrators” (Committee on Public Education). • How violence is being portrayed in contexts such as Macbeth and Saving Private Ryan, viewers can learn and be exposed to the danger and harm of violence in a more empathetic way (Committee on Public Education).

  20. Learning about Violence and Learning to Be Violent • Learning to be violent: • Unfortunately, most entertainment violence is not portrayed in realistic ways of the real world; violence is used for immediate thrills without portraying any human cost. • Violent media may seem realistic because of special effects and graphic depictions of chaos. • This portrays violence in a more believable and appealing manner. • “Studies show that the more realistically violence is portrayed, the greater the likelihood that it will be tolerated and learned” (Committee on Public Education).

  21. Mimicking Behavior • Many research studies have shown that young children will mimic aggressive acts on TV when playing with their peers. It is important to supervise what children watch, especially if they are under the age of four. • “Before age 4, children are unable to distinguish between fact and fantasy and may view violence as an ordinary occurrence” (Committee on Public Education).

  22. Adult Supervision • It is important for an adult to watch programs with children. This way, an adult can address any objectionable material seen. They can help teach children how to interpret the violence they see to know what is acceptable. In doing this, it may help children to decide which media messages are suitable (Beresin). • Younger children especially need this supervision so they can learn right from wrong, and hopefully the negative remarks the parent provides against violence will help dissuade a young child in repeating those acts.

  23. Recommendations • To help mitigate media violence, the American Academy of Pediatrics has created a list of recommendations… • Physicians should talk openly with parents about media exposure as annual health maintenance examinations. • Limit screen time to one to two hours per day and make thoughtful media choices. • Pediatricians should encourage parents, schools, and communities to educate children to be media literate. • Teaching how media can influence how we perceive reality and develop attitudes, how to determine whether media messages are appropriate, and how to reject unhealthy messages (Committee on Public Education).

  24. Recommendations • Pediatricians should encourage parents, schools, and communities to educate children to be media literate. • Teaching how media can influence how we perceive reality and develop attitudes, how to determine whether media messages are appropriate, and how to reject unhealthy messages. • Pediatricians should collaborate with other health care organizations, government, educators and research funding sources to keep violence on the public health agenda. • Pediatricians should support child friendly and truthful media (Committee on Public Education).

  25. Violence in Media • Although exposure to media violence is not the main factor of aggression and violence among children and adolescents, media violence contributes to this behavior regardless. Media violence has an affect on the physical and mental health of individuals, this is an important health risk that should not be ignored. By following the recommendations that the American Academy of Pediatrics provides, it could help contribute to the well being of children and adolescents.

  26. References Beresin, Eugene V. "The Impact of Media Violence on Children and Adolescents: Opportunities for Clinical Interventions." American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. AACAP, 2010. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. Bushman, Brad J. "The Effects of Violent Video Games. Do They Affect Our Behavior?" International Human Press. ITHP, 2010. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. "Call of Duty Modern Warfare 2 Gameplay - No Russian - Airport Massacre HD." Youtube. YouTube, 13 Nov. 2009. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. Campus Health Services. "What Is Interpersonal Violence?” University of North Carolina. UNC Student Affairs, n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. Committee on Public Education. "Media Violence." Pediatrics. American Academy of Pediatrics, 19 Oct. 2009. Web. 26 Feb. 2013.