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Violence in Media

Violence in Media

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Violence in Media

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  1. Violence in Media MashoodSabir, HasanMayda, Nischal Sharma, Alison Han

  2. Issue: Is there too much violence in the media?

  3. Definitions • Violence: the exertion or physical force so as to injure or abuse • Media violence: acts or depictions of violence that are found in the media or mass communications (“Media Violence”, 2010)

  4. Introduction • Examples of media violence • violent scenes in movies or TV shows • lyrics in pop songs glorifying violence • violent activities in video games • Past research estimates that about 90% of movies, 68% of video games, 60% of TV shows, and 15% of music videos include some depictions of violence (Knorr, 2013)

  5. Video • Examples of violence in the media http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0di8JvdWEiM

  6. Common Beliefs & Misconceptions • Audiences demand violence in the media industry • “Audiences like action, special effects, conflict and interesting plots. Violence doesn’t add to enjoyment and viewers prefer non-violent versions of shows.” –Andrew Weaver, telecommunications professor at Indiana University (McCall, 2013) • Unrealistic video game violence is completely safe for adolescents and older youths • Studies show increases in aggression even after exposure to E-rated violent video games (Anderson, 2003)

  7. Psychological Lens • The National Institute of Mental Health identified these major effects of seeing violence on television: • Children may become less sensitive to the pain and suffering of others • Children may be more fearful of the world around them • Children may be more likely to behave in aggressive or harmful ways toward others • Such TV violence socialization may make children immune to brutality and aggression (Anderson, 20003)

  8. Research by psychologists L. Rowell Huesmann, Leonard Eron and others • Found that children who watched many hours of violence on television when they were in elementary school tended to also show a higher level of aggressive behavior when they became teenagers • The ones who watched a lot of TV violence when they were eight years old were more likely to be arrested and prosecuted for criminal acts as adults (Richardson, 1993)

  9. Sociological Lens • People influenced by society; shapes behaviour • Influenced by what they see in the media • “Monkey see, monkey do” • Gender • Follow-up of a study conducted by Huesmann showed gender differences in the expression of aggression • Men more likely to engage in serious physical aggression and criminality • Women more likely to engage in forms of indirect aggression

  10. Environment • Exposure to media violence is less of a problem for people with positive influences in their lives • Key factor for people who have other risk factors (i.e. poor home life, substance abuse) • Age • Greater effect on younger children who cannot tell the difference between fantasy and reality • Mostly children and teens affected as they are more consumed by the media (Huesmann, 2003)

  11. Anthropological Lens • According to the UNESCO global media violence study, conducted by Prof. Joe Groebel of Utrecht University in Netherlands: • Modern children globally spend time watching television 50% more than any other activity, making television a major socialization factor • Young and teenage boys’ aggressive behaviour is influenced by aggressive television role models • Influence varies around the world with 34% in Asia, 25% Europe and Americas and 18% in Africa

  12. 47% of those children who prefer aggressive media content would also like to be involved in a risky situation • Risk-seeking tendency significantly high in technologically developed countries (Canada, United States, Japan, China, etc.) • There are many cultural differences, yet the basic patterns of the media violence implications are similar around the world (Groebel, 1998)

  13. Arguments • YES – too much violence in media • Promotes child and teen aggression • Desensitizes certain viewers • Instills fearful behaviour in viewers • NO – not too much violence in media • Up to the discretion of individual/parents • Not the primary factor for aggressive behaviour • Does not cause violent behaviour

  14. YES – too much violence • Violence in the media promotes child and teen aggression • Study by the Kaiser Family Foundation in 2003 • Nearly half (47 per cent) of parents with children (ages 4-6) reported imitated aggressive behaviours from TV (Rideout, 2003) • Bobo Doll Experiment by Albert Bandura • 72 children participated, watched different scenarios • Results: children that observed aggressive models made far more imitative aggressive responses than those that didn’t (McLeod, 2011)

  15. TV violence can desensitize certain viewers to real life violence, especially young children • Experiment by University of Missouri (MU) • 70 young adults, violent/non-violent game for 25 mins. • Found that playing a violent game in the lab caused a reduced brain response to violent photos (Bartholow, 2011) • Experiment by two Iowa State University psychologists • 257 college students, violent/non-violent game -20 mins. • Heart rate and skin response measurements taken after while watching videotape of violent episodes from TV • Measurement results lower for participants in violent video game group (Carnagey, 2006)

  16. Violence in media instills fearful behaviour in viewers, mainly young children • Case study by Illinois Violence Prevention Authority • Concludes that children who watch a lot of television believe that their world is meaner and less safe than children who watch less television (Patten, 2001) • Case study from University of Amsterdam, Netherlands • Found that violent threats – both fictional and news (e.g. murder, war, house fires) increased fright and worry in children (Bushman, 2008)

  17. NO – not too much violence • The types of media someone chooses to be exposed to is up to the discretion of parents and themselves • Different ratings and age restrictions for specific genres • TV-PG contains moderate violence may be unsuitable for some children • TV-14 contains intense violence that can only be suitable for ages of 14 or above • Video games – E for everyone, M for mature • Content Warning given before the start of any show, people are not forced if they do not want to watch it, they can simply just leave • Parents should monitor what their kids watch

  18. Media violence is not the primary factor that causes aggressive behaviour • Biological factors (genes, how humans are made) • Environmental factors (how society treats someone) • Family factors (family life, nurture) (Anderson, 2003) • According to a 2001 U.S Surgeon General report, the strongest risk factor for school shootings is centered on mental stability and the quality of home life, not media exposure (Jenkins, 2005)

  19. Research shows that media violence does not cause violent behaviour • According to a new research paper from the Media Institute by Jonathan Freedman: • “Some kids just look more aggressive because they’re excited. But if they watch some nonviolent program, plus some very active lively program, they’ll probably behave the same way.” (Oleck, 2007) • Study by Dr. Cheryl Olsen, South Carolina & Pennsylvania • Looked at 7th and 8th graders’ gaming habits • No causal relationships found between violent games and violent behavior (Beresen, 2012)

  20. Conclusions • There is too much violence in the media • It has become so prevalent in today’s society that it’s made us numb to a certain extent • Over time, violent content can shape the mind to believe what is being portrayed to be acceptable • Too much exposure to violent content is not good for anyone, especially children

  21. Solutions • Banning/limiting use of violent contents in movies and video games • Government should take control of news broadcasters • prevent them from altering the news events, simply to increase their Television Rating Point • Increase the age limit for the use of violent video games, as adults are less likely to be influenced • Create more outdoor recreational parks and events to reduce children’s exposure to the media • Promote outdoor sports and recreational activities

  22. Quiz • What are some examples of violence in the media? • Which form of media depicts the most violence? • Music videos • Video games • Movies • TV shows • Audiences demand violence in the media industry. • True • False • Which gender is more likely to engage in forms of indirect aggression such as verbal abuse?

  23. There is a greater effect of media violence on younger children who cannot tell the difference between _________ and ________ . • Apart from media violence, list 2 factors that may cause aggressive behaviour. • Which of the following is not a result of watching violence on television? • Desensitization to real violence • Fearfulness of the world • Positive change in one’s character • Increased signs of aggression

  24. Children who prefer aggressive media content have a low risk seeking tendency • True • False • Name an experiment that describes the sentence, "Children imitate what they see.” • The basic patterns of the media violence implications are _________ around the world.

  25. Bibliography • Anderson, C. (2003). Violence video games: Myths, facts, and unanswered questions. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/science/about/psa/2003/10/anderson.aspx • Bartholow, B. (2011). Violent video games. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/05/110525151059.htm • Beresen, G. (2012). Research shows violent media do not cause violent behavior. Retrieved from http://www.massgeneral.org/children/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=3929 • Bushman, B. (2008). Children’s direct fright and worry reactions to violence. Retrieved from http://sitemaker.umich.edu/brad.bushman/files/Fright.pdf • Carnagey, N. (2006). Violence desensitization from video games. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/07/060727162108.htm • Groebel, J. (1998). The unesco global study on media violence. Retrieved from http://www.hinifoto.de/gaming/unesco.html • Huesmann, L. (2003). Early exposure to tv violence predicts aggression in adulthood. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/prevent-violence/resources/tv-violence.aspx • Jenkins, H. (2002). Reality bytes: eight myths about video games debunked. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/kcts/videogamerevolution/impact/myths.html • Knorr, C. (2013). Impact of media violence tips. Retrieved from http://www.commonsensemedia.org/advice-for-parents/impact-media-violence-tips

  26. McCall, J. (2013). Effects of media violence can't be denied. Retrieved from http://collegenews.org/editorials/2013/effects-of-media-violence-cant-be-denied.html • McLeod, S. (2011). Bobo doll experiment. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/bobo-doll.html • Media Violence. (2010). In Current Issues. Detroit: Gale. Retrieved from http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/ovic/home • Oleck, J. (2007). Tv violence doesn't lead to aggressive kids, study says. Retrieved from http://www.slj.com/2007/05/students/tv-violence-doesnt-lead-to-aggressive-kids-study-says • Patten, P. (2001). The early years: Violence on television. Retrieved from http://ecap.crc.illinois.edu/pubs/ivpaguide/summary-sheets/summary-early-violenceTV.pdf • Richardson, J. (1993). The effects of media violence on children. Retrieved from http://www.indiana.edu/~cspc/media.htm • Rideout, V. (2003). Zero to six: Electronic media in the lives of infants. Retrieved from http://kaiserfamilyfoundation.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/zero-to-six-electronic-media-in-the-lives-of-infants-toddlers-and-preschoolers-pdf.pdf