Unit 4Earthquakes languages points
1.Imagine your home begins to shake and you must leave it right away.假设你的家开始晃动,你 必须立刻离开 Shake（shook,shaken) v.摇动, 摇, 颤抖, 震动 n.摇动, 摇, 颤抖, 震动 翻译:服药前请摇动瓶子 Please shake the bottle before taking the medicine. 当火车经过时大地在剧烈地震动 When the train passed by,the earth shook seriously
这个可怜的孩子正冻得发抖 The poor child was shaking with cold. 联想记忆: shake hands with sb. shake one’s head/nod one’s head shake sb by the hand=shake one’s hand shake one’s fist at sb right away=right now=at once=immediately 立刻;马上
We must be off right away/right now.It’s eight . 请立刻把这篇文章打出来 Please type this article out right away/right now right away不可用于进行时态,right now还相当于 at this very moment;at present在此刻,此时,可用于 进行时态 他们正在录制唱片 They are making the record right now
翻译:他此刻正在写一本小说 He is writing a novel right now. 现在是暑假我在农场上帮助爸爸干活 Right now it is summer vocation and I’m helping my dad on the farm.
2. For three days the water in the village wells rose and fell,rose and fell.三天来,村子的水井中的水位 升升落落不停. @rise (rose,risen) vi.升起, 起身, 高耸, 增长, 上升 n.上升, 增加, 上涨, 发生, 出现 Everyone knows that the sun rises in the east. He rose from his chair when the door bell rang. Prices continue to rise.
raise [reIz]( raised, raising) vt. 抬高；举起 I will not raise a hand against you. 我不会做任何不利于你的事。 提高；增加 to raise salaries 提高工资 他把手臂举过头顶。 He raised his arms above his head. 他们坚决要求提高工资 They insisted on raising salaries
rise 与 raise 上升，提高 The price of tomatoes has _________(rise,raise) recently. The price of the tomatoes has been ____ (rise,raise)recently. He ____ (rise,raise)the child from the ground The child ____(rise,raise) from the ground. rose raised raised rose
3. A smelly gas came out of the cracks.发臭的气体 从裂缝中冒出来。 @smelly adj.有臭味的 eg:The food was smelly. 扩展: n.+y构成形容词 blood---- mud---- sun----- cloud---- rain---- wind--- taste---- dream---- ice---- greed---- fat---- fog----- 4. In the farmyards,the chickens and even the pigs were too nervous to eat. @too…to… 太…以至于不能 (表否定)
口头翻译: 李平的弟弟年纪太小而不能参军 Li Ping’s brother is too young to join the army. =Li Ping’s brother is not old enough to join …. 听到这个消息他紧张地说不出话来. Hearing the good news,he was too nervous to speak.
“too…to…”结构之前带有only,but,never,not,时， 是强调肯定的表示法，译作“非常……”“十分…” “实在……””真是太……”等 I am only too happy to teach you. 我非常高兴教你们。 He is but too glad to do so 他非常喜欢这样做 You can never be too old to enjoy a song. 我们绝对不会老得不能获得歌曲带来的欢乐
Too…to..结构中带有表示心情或描绘性的adj/adv Eg ready,eager,satisfied,kind,willing,anxious etc She is too ready to help other. 他乐于助人。 I am too eager to have a world trip. 我很想去环球旅行
扩展: 修饰单数名词 too+adj.+a+n: I think she’s too kind a girl to refuse. 扩展
5. In the city,the water pipes in some buildings cracked and burst.在城市里,有些建筑物里的水管 出现裂缝或者破裂. @crack vi. 使开裂,破裂, eg: The ice cracked as I stepped onto it. 玻璃制成的瓶子当从桌子摔落到地上时容易破碎 The bottles made of glass easily crack when they fell into the ground from the table.
n. 裂缝,裂纹 翻译:今天别去滑冰了-----冰上有危险的裂缝. Don’t go skating today---there are dangerous cracks in the ice. 镜子破裂了 The mirror cracked. 墙上有个裂缝 There is a crack in the wall
burst (burst,burst;bursting) 爆炸；胀裂； 突然而起；闯入 (水库,堤坝等)决口 气球突然爆炸了 The balloon burst suddenly. 水管在寒冷的天气里经常冻裂。 Water-pipes often burst in cold weather. 河水冲毁了堤岸，淹没了村子 The river burst its banks and flooded the town.
If you get much fatter you will burst your clothes. 她突然闯进门。 She burst into the door. 扩展: burst into+n突然…. burst into tears burst into song burst into leaf burs into flower 突然哭起来 突然唱起来 长出叶子 开花
burst out+v-ing :suddenly begin doing sth burst out crying burst out laughing burst out singing 突然哭起来 突然笑起来 突然唱起来 burst into the room 闯入房间 a burst of applause/anger/tears 一阵…..
6.It seemed that the world was at an end. 似乎世界末日来临 @at en end 结束;终结 The war was at an end. 区分: at the end of;by the end of; in the end. at the end of There is a big bookstore _____ this road. There is a pretty bird singing _____ the tree. How many English words had you learned ____ __ ____________ last term. He will be a scientist _____. My father will return home _____ ______ this year. at the end of by the end of in the end at the end of
at the end (of ) :在……末尾，指时间和空间 by the end of :到……末为止 in the end : 最后，最终，不与of 连用 其他词组： bring/put ….to an end 使终止 come to an end. 结束 end up with 以….而告终
7.In fifteen terrible seconds a large city lay in ruins 在可怕的十五秒钟内,一座大城市变为废墟. @ruinn.废墟(c.n),毁灭(u.n) Vt. 使毁灭 in ruins荒芜的,成为废墟,一般用作表语 战争给这个国家带来了毁灭 The war brought ruin to the country. 我们的计划泡汤了 Our plan is in ruins 暴风雨摧毁了农作物 The storm ruined the crops.
那建筑物已断壁残垣 The building is in ruins 如果你继续这样愚蠢下去,你将自毁前程 You will ruin your prospects if you continue to be so foolish.
8.Two-thirds of the people died or were injured during the earthquake.三分之二的人在地震中死 亡或受伤 injure vt.损害,受伤 adj. injured 受伤的,受委屈的 He can't play today because he's injured his knee. 因为伤了膝盖，他今天不能比赛。 Among the dead and injured,there were six children. 死伤的人中，有六名儿童。
辨析:hurt,injure,wound hurt受伤的一般用语,常指心灵的伤害,也可指身体 的受伤或疼痛. wound指战场上的刀伤或枪伤 damage指对物体的破坏或损坏 injure一般指由于意外或事故而受伤,也可以表示 “损害名誉,伤害感情等”
His words ______her feelings. It ______the eyes to read in the sun. More than 200 people were _________in the car accident. The soldiers were __________-in the battle. hurt hurts injured wounded
9. The number of people who were killed or injured reached more than 400 000. 伤亡的人数达到400 000. He sent his son to join the army as soon as he reached 18. Your letter of August 24 only reached me today. We’ve got to reach an agreement about this question. The boy wasn’t tall enough to reach the branches. The park reaches as far as the river. 达到(指某种数目) 抵达,传到 达成(协议)得出(结论) 伸手够到(某物) vi.延伸
10. Everywhere they looked nearly everything was destroyed.人们无论朝哪里看,哪里一切都几乎被 毁坏了. everywhere=wherever =no matter where在这里做连词用,引导状语从句.如: 无论他出现在哪里，他都是受欢的 Everywhere he appeared, he was popular. 无论他去哪，他的狗都跟着他。 Everywhere he goes,his dogs follows him.
everywhere pron. 到处，处处 我们到处找你。 We have looked everywhere for you. 到处是深谷 Everywhere are deep valleys.
11.Tens of thousands of cows never give milk again 数以万计的奶牛再也不产奶了 @tens of thousands of 数以万计的 hundreds and hundreds of 成百上千的 hundreds of thousands 数以十万计的 thousands of 数千计的 millions of 数百万计的 scores of 许许多多的 dozens of 许多，大量
12. People were shocked. 人们感到震惊. . @shock vt.&n. (1)vt. Cause a shock to sb.使某人吃惊,使愤慨 I was shocked at the news of her death. He was shocked to know he had been cheated Liu xiang shocked the whole world (2)n. 打击,震惊,休克 The shock of the failure in the exam made her ill. It gave me quite a shock to learn that he had married again. The patient went into another shock.
13. Some of the rescue workers and doctors were trapped under the ruins. 有些救援人员和医生被 困在废墟中 @rescue vt. 援救;营救 rescue sb from sb/sth 救出一孩子免于溺毙 rescue a child from drowning 解放军战士从即将倒塌的房子中救出了那位老太。 The PLA man rescued the old lady from the falling house. n. 援救, 营救 a rescue team; a rescue mission. 救援队；营救任务
@trap (trapped,trapped) n.陷阱，圈套 vt. 使受限制(困)于;诱骗 The car was trapped in the deep snow.
15.people began to wonder how long the disaster would last.人们开始困惑这灾难要持续多久 @disaster (c.n.)灾难,灾祸,灾害 adj. disastrous adv. disastrously
16. The army organized teams to dig out those who are trapped and to bury the dead. 军队组成救援队 挖掘那些受困的人们并埋葬死者。
bury vt. (1)place (a dead body) in the ground埋葬 eg: He was buried with his wife. (2)hide掩埋 隐藏, Our dog buries its bones in the garden. 她双手掩面哭了起来. She buried her face in her hands and wept. (3)短语:bury oneself in the country隐居乡间 bury oneself in sth埋头于某事物,专心致志于某事 be buried in thoughts/memories of the past 沉思/回忆往事
@dig out 掘出;发现eg: 他把狐狸从洞中掘出来了， He dug out the fox from/dug the fox out of the hole. to dig information out of books 从书本挖掘知识 to dig out truth 寻求真理
17.To the north of the city,most of the 10 000 miners were rescued from the coal mines. 在城市的北部,一万矿工中的大多数从矿井中被救 出。 @表方位介词in,to与on in表示“在其中”,在境内;to表示“向”的意思,在境外 on 表示与境界相接. in Japan lies ____ the east of Asia. Japan lies ____ the east of China. Fujian lies ______the northeast of Duangdong. to on
18.Fresh water was taken to the city by train…… @fresh adj.新鲜的, 无经验的, 生的,(水)淡的 fresh water------------salt water fresh fruit/air/vegetables a fresh hand(新手,初学者) freshman----sophomore----junior----senior