Unit 3B:Biological Bases of Behavior:The Brain Overview model of brain
Unit Overview • The Tools of Discovery: Having Our Head Examined • Brain Structures • The Cerebral Cortex • Our Divided Brain • Right-Left Differences in the Intact Brain • The Brain and Consciousness Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation.
The Tools of Discovery: Having Our Head Examined prep DVD1, Neuroscience and Behavior, #2
Introduction LO #1, p. 67 • lesion two effects of damage to a rat’s hypothalamus? What are three ways scientists can stimulate parts of the brain? 1. 2. 3.
Recording the Brain’s Electrical Activity • electroencephalogram (EEG) How does an EEG work? What might it reveal? Rachel W. taste
Neuroimaging Techniques • CT (Computed Tomography) scan • PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scan • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) • fMRI (Functional MRI) How is a CT scan different from PET scan? MRI from fMRI?
Video: Mapping the Brain Through Electrical Stimulation, 2:40 (DVD1, Neuroscience and Behavior, clip 05, p. 13) prep Vol. 2, DVD1 (Neuroscience and Behavior), Clip 106
The Brainstem LO #2 – importance of lower-level brain structures • brainstem • medulla • pons (relays signals from forebrain to the cerebellum • reticular formation
The Thalamus • thalamus • all the senses EXCEPT smell; (brain’s sensory switchboard or post office)
The Cerebellum • cerebellum • “little brain” Michael Jordan
The Limbic System • limbic System • hippocampus Video:Compulsive Gambling and the Brain’s Pleasure Center Vol. 2, DVD1 (Neuroscience and Behavior), Clip 106,5:20 min.
The Limbic SystemThe Amygdala • amygdala • aggression and fear
The Limbic SystemThe Hypothalamus • hypothalamus, p. 72 • influence on the pituitary gland • reward centers • reward deficiency syndrome (e.g., Kim Rainer) Hypothalamus is responsible for “drives” including sexual behavior.
Yes, the hypothalamus is responsible for “sexual behavior.” What does THAT mean? “. . . and the two shall become one flesh.”
Review of web sitewww.pureintimacy.org Click on God’s design for sex Then on What’s Good About Sex
The Cerebral Cortex prep Phineas Gage video
Introduction LO #3 – cerebral cortex regions • cerebrum – the two large hemispheres • cerebral cortexthin surface layer
Structure of the Cortex • glial cells (“glue cells”) • lobes • frontal lobe • parietal lobe • occipital lobe • temporal lobe
Functions of the CortexMotor Functions • motor cortex • mapping the motor cortex(surgery humor) • neural prosthetics(paralyzed 25-yr. old man)
Functions of the CortexSensory Functions • sensory cortex (brain model)
Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex A B For each statement, identify the lobe that has the primary responsibility for that activity or experience. C D Temporal Listening to music Waving your arm Feeling gloves on your hands Viewing a sunset Hearing your name being called Making plans for dinner Seeing your friend’s face Experiencing an itch Frontal Parietal Occipital Temporal Frontal Occipital Parietal
Functions of the CortexAssociation Areas • association areas • frontal lobe (motor strip) • Phineas Gage (demo of frontal association area at work) • parietal lobe (sensory strip) • temporal lobe(brain model)
Video: Phineas Gage then prep DVD1, Neuroscience and Behavior, clip 06
Video: Planning, Life Goals, and the Frontal Lobe,(DVD1, Neuroscience and Behavior, clip 06, p. 14, 6:20) (Vietnam veteran)
Language LO #4 – areas of language processing • aphasia, p. 80 • Broca’s area(damage disrupts speaking) • Wernicke’s area(damage disrupts understanding)
Language, p. 81 prep DVD1, Neuroscience and Behavior, clip 08
Video: Language and Brain Plasticity, 4:00 (DVD1, Neuroscience and Behavior, clip 08, p. 18) prep “Split Brain”
The Brain’s Plasticity LO #5 – reorganization of damaged brain • brain damage • plasticity(ability to modify itself after . . .) • constraint-induced therapy (forced use of . . .) • neurogenesis(generate new brain cells)
Splitting the Brain LO #6 – what split brains reveal • Vogel and Bogen, p. 83 • corpus-callosum • split brain(result?) • Myers and Gazzaniga (brains of cats and monkeys)
How Smart Is Your Right Foot? While sitting at your desk, lift your right foot off the floor and make clockwise circles with it. Now, while doing this, draw the number "6" in the air with your right hand. What happens?
Right-Left Brain Differences LO #7 – handedness • hemispheric specialization, p. 87 • perceptual tasks (right) • language (effect of sedative to left hemisphere)
Hand Usage Questionnaire With which hand do you . . . • Draw? Left Right Either • Write? Left Right Either • Use a bottle opener? Left Right Either • Throw a snowball? Left Right Either • Use a hammer? Left Right Either • Use a toothbrush? Left Right Either • Use a screwdriver? Left Right Either • Use an eraser on paper? Left Right Either • Use a tennis racket? Left Right Either • Use a scissors? Left Right Either • Stir a can of paint? Left Right Either • On which do you rest Left Right Eithera bat before swinging?