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Chapter 16

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Chapter 16

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  1. Chapter 16 Narrative Research Designs Power Point slides by Ronald J. Shope in collaboration with John W. Creswell

  2. Key Ideas • Narrative research and when to use it • Types of narrative designs • Key characteristics of narrative designs • Potential issues in gathering data • Steps in conducting a narrative study • Evaluating narrative research Educational Research 2e: Creswell

  3. What is narrative research? • In narrative research, researchers describe the lives of individuals, collect and tell stories about people’s lives, and write narratives of individual experiences. As a distinct form of qualitative research, a narrative typically focuses on studying a single person, gathering data through the collection of stories, reporting individual experiences, and discussing the meaning of those experiences for the individual. Educational Research 2e: Creswell

  4. How do you use narrative designs? • When individuals are willing to tell their stories • Want to report personal experiences in a particular setting • Want a close bond with participants • When participants want to process their stories • When you have a chronology of events • When you want to write in a literary way and develop the micro picture Educational Research 2e: Creswell

  5. How did narrative researchdevelop? • 1990 Clandinin and Connelly first overview of narrative research in education • Trends influencing the development of narrative research • increased emphasis on teacher reflection • emphasis placed on teacher knowledge • attempt to bring teachers’ voices to the forefront Educational Research 2e: Creswell

  6. Types of narrative designs: Questions to ask • Who writes or records the story?( e.g., Biography; Autobiography) • How much of a life is recorded or presented? (e.g., Life History; Personal Experience Story) • Who provides the story? • Is a theoretical lens being used? (Ideology that provides structure) • When can narrative forms be combined? (e.g., Biography and Personal Account) Educational Research 2e: Creswell

  7. Key characteristics of narrative designs • Individual experiences • Chronology of the experiences • Collecting individual stories • Restorying • Coding for themes • Context or setting • Collaboration with participants Educational Research 2e: Creswell

  8. Key characteristics:Individual experiences • Single individual • Interested in exploring the experiences of that individual Educational Research 2e: Creswell

  9. Key characteristics: Chronology of experiences • Researcher analyzes and writes about an individual life using a time sequence or chronology of events • Researcher orders these events in a way that makes sense to a reader Educational Research 2e: Creswell

  10. Key characteristics Collecting individual stories • A story in narrative research is a first‑person oral telling or retelling of an individual • Stories have a beginning, middle, and end • Involve a predicament, conflict, or struggle; a protagonist or character; and a sequence with implied causality (a plot) during which the predicament is resolved in some fashion • Like a novel, stories have time, place, plot, and scene • Varied sources of data comprise the data base Educational Research 2e: Creswell

  11. Key characteristics: Restorying • Restories the individual stories • researcher gathers stories and analyzes them for elements of the story • researcher rewrites the story to place it in a chronological sequence • restorying provides a causal link among ideas • information would include interaction, continuity, and situation Educational Research 2e: Creswell

  12. The Process of Restorying • Transcription: researcher conducts the interview and transcribes the conversation from an audiotape • Retranscription: identifying the key elements of the story. Codes used by the researcher to identify setting, characters’ actions, problem and resolution in the transcript • Restorying: organizing the key codes into a sequence Educational Research 2e: Creswell

  13. Key characteristics: Coding for themes • Themes provide the complexity of the story • Themes add depth to the insight about understanding an individual’s experiences • Themes can be incorporated into the passage retelling the individual’s experience or as a separate section of the study Educational Research 2e: Creswell

  14. Key characteristics: Context or setting • Describes the context or setting for the individual stories: • includes the people involved in the story • includes the physical setting • setting may be described before events or actions, or can be woven throughout the study Educational Research 2e: Creswell

  15. Key characteristics: Collaboration with participants • Collaboration: inquirer actively involves the participant in the inquiry as it unfolds • Strategies • Negotiating relationships • Involving participants in the process of research • Negotiating transitions in the research process Educational Research 2e: Creswell

  16. Story authentic? (“Faking the data” possible) Is the story “real?” (Participants may not be able to tell the “real story”) Who “owns” the story? (Does the researcher have permission to share it?) Is participant’s voice lost? Does the researcher gain at the expense of the participant? Potential issues in narrative research Educational Research 2e: Creswell

  17. Steps in narrative research Build in past, Present, future Build in place or setting Describe their story Analyze story for themes Have them Tell story Collect other Field texts Restory or retell The individual’s story Collaborate with participant storyteller in all phases of research Collect stories from the individual that Reflect personal experience 5 3 4 Purposefully select an individual to learn about the phenomenon Write a story about the participant’s personal and social experiences 2 6 Identify a phenomenon that addresses an educational problem Validate the accuracy of the report 1 7 Educational Research 2e: Creswell

  18. Evaluating narrative research • Does the researcher focus on individual experiences? • Is there a focus on a single individual or a few individuals? • Did the researcher collect the story of an individual’s experience? • Was there a restorying by the researcher of the participant’s story? Educational Research 2e: Creswell

  19. Evaluating narrative research • In the restorying, was the participant’s voice as well as the researcher’s voice heard? • Did the researcher identify themes that emerged from the story? • Did the story include information about place or setting of the individual? Educational Research 2e: Creswell

  20. Evaluating narrative research • Did the story have a temporal, chronological sequence including the past, present and future? • Is there evidence that the researcher collaborated with the participant? • Does the story adequately address the purpose and questions of the researcher? Educational Research 2e: Creswell