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14. Delivering Your Speech

14. Delivering Your Speech

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14. Delivering Your Speech

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  1. AL AKHAWAYN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES AND SOCIAL SCIENCES COMMUNICATIONS STUDIES 14. Delivering Your Speech Lecture by Dr. Mohammed Ibahrine based on Clella Jaffe’s Public Speaking

  2. Structure of the Lecture • 1. Maximize Your Personal Appearance • 1.1. Make the Most of Your Physical Appearance • 1.2 Choose Appropriate Clothing and Accessories

  3. Structure of the Lecture • 2. Develop Effective Mannerisms • 2.1 Control Your Gestures • 2.1.1 Emblems • 2.1.2 Illustrators • 2.1.3 Adaptors • 2.2 Make Eye Contact

  4. Structure of the Lecture • 3. Vary Your Vocal Behaviors • 3.1 Pronounce Your Words Clearly • 3.1.1 Articulation and Stress • 3.1.2 Regional Origin • 3.1.3 Ethnicity • 3.1.4 Social Status • 3.2 Use Vocal Variations • 3.3 Pause for Effect

  5. Structure of the Lecture • 4 Put It All Together • 4.1 Select the Appropriate Type of Delivery • 4.1.1 Impromptu Delivery • 4.1.2 Memorized Delivery • 4.1.3 Manuscript Delivery • 4.1.4 Extemporaneous Delivery • 4.2 Use Technology Competently • 4.2.1 Using Microphones • 4.2.2 Adapting for Videotaped Speeches • 4.2.3 Using TelePrompTer • Summary

  6. 1. Maximize Your Personal Appearance • 1. Maximize Your Personal Appearance • Erving Goffman (1959) develops the concept of impression management in his influential book, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life • Goffman compares our self-presentation to a dramatic performance in which we attempt to create and maintain impressions of ourselves as if we were on a stage, using a combination of props and personal mannerism to accomplish this MY PART

  7. 1. Maximize Your Personal Appearance • 1.1. Make the Most of Your Physical Appearance • You have several permanent physical features that disclose information about you • Just by looking at you others can infer your sex, general age range and racial background • Some audiences will stereotype you based on your personal appearance

  8. 1. Maximize Your Personal Appearance • 1.1. Make the Most of Your Physical Appearance • Physical features can also make you reluctant to speak publicly • Less-than-perfect • Crooked teeth • Visible birthmark • Poor eyesight • Regardless of features you can pay special attention to smiling, gesturing, cloches and accessories

  9. 1. Maximize Your Personal Appearance • 1.2 Choose Appropriate Clothing and Accessories • John Molloy (1976) Dress for Success has made a fortune telling people that their clothing choices influence the way others perceive them • A good general rule is to select clothing that is slightly more formal than normal • Before you speak anywhere, it is a good idea to check out clothing expectations

  10. 1. Maximize Your Personal Appearance • 1.2 Choose Appropriate Clothing and Accessories • ACCESSORIES: The objects you carry or add to your clothing • Jewelry • Glasses • Briefcases • notebooks

  11. 2. Develop Effective Mannerisms • Your manner or the way you speak, move, and look at the audience, is an area of nonverbal communication that you can control to a significant degree • 2-1 Control Your Gesturers • Body movements range from motions, such as postures, walking, and gesturing to very small movements such as raising one eyebrow

  12. 2. Develop Effective Mannerisms • 2.1 Control Your Gesturers • There are especially applicable to public speaking • Emblems • Illustrators • Adaptors

  13. 2. Develop Effective Mannerisms • 2.1 Control Your Gesturers • 2.1.1 Emblems: are gestures that stand for words or ideas, • Hold up a hand to ask for quiet • Emblems vary across cultures

  14. 2. Develop Effective Mannerisms • 2.1 Control Your Gesturers • 2.1.2 Illustrators: are gestures that illustrate or add emphasis to your words • Illustrators function in a variety of ways • To accent words and phrases • To show spatial relationship • To point to objects

  15. 2. Develop Effective Mannerisms • 2.1 Control Your Gesturers • 2.1.3 Adaptors: gestures that betray stress or fear • There are three kinds of adopters • Self-adopters are those in which you touch yourself: • Fidgeting with your hair • Licking your lips • Scratching your face • Rubbing your hands together

  16. 2. Develop Effective Mannerisms • 2.1 Control Your Gesturers • Object adopters involving touching things • Tap your pencil • Twist your ring

  17. 2. Develop Effective Mannerisms • 2.1 Control Your Gesturers • Alter adopters are gestures you use in relationship to the audience • Tap your pencil • Twist your ring

  18. 2. Develop Effective Mannerisms • 2.2 Make Eye Contact • Eye contact communicates • Honesty • Trustworthiness • Friendliness • What is typical in the US is not universal • Prolonged eye contact with superiors is considered disrespectful

  19. 3. Vary Your Words Behaviors • 3.1 Pronounce Your Words Clearly • Articulation and Stress • Articulation is the way you say individuals sounds such as this or dis • Stress is the way you accent syllables or whole words poe-LEESE (police) or (POE-leese

  20. 3. Vary Your Words Behaviors • 3.1 Pronounce Your Words Clearly • Regional Origin • You have probably noticed regional variations in pronunciation and articulation

  21. 3. Vary Your Words Behaviors • 3.1 Pronounce Your Words Clearly • Ethnicity • Ethnicity is another factor that may affect pronunciation

  22. 3. Vary Your Words Behaviors • 3.1 Pronounce Your Words Clearly • Social Status • Differences in pronunciation often indicate social status

  23. 3. Vary Your Words Behaviors • 3.2 Use Vocal Variation • Vocal variations are changes in volume, rate, and pitch that combine to create impressions of the speaker • Audiences typically associate vocal characteristics with personality with personality traits

  24. 3. Vary Your Words Behaviors • 3.2 Use Vocal Variation • Here are just a few common associations: • Loud and fast speakers=resourceful + dynamic • Loud and slow speakers=aggressive + confident • Soft and fast speakers=composed + enthusiastic • Soft and slow speakers=benevolent +

  25. 3. Vary Your Words Behaviors • 3.2 Use Vocal Variation • Make vocal variations work for you • Use a slower rate when you are giving key points and speed up for background material • Change your vocal inflections if your audience appears to be losing interest • Add pitch variations and increased volume and rate to communicate enthusiasm

  26. 3. Vary Your Words Behaviors • 3.3 Pause for Effect • Consider your use of pauses • Pauses can be effective or they can be embarrassing to both you and your listeners • Effective pauses are intentional • You purposely pause between major ideas • Give your audience a few seconds to contemplate a difficult concept • In contrast, ineffective pauses or hesitations can disrupt your fluency Unfilled pauses are silent • Filled or vocalized pauses are um you know sounds

  27. 4. Put It ALL Together • Consider your use of pauses • Confident style incorporates: • Vocal variety • Fluency • Good use of gestures • Good eye contact to create an impression of dynamism as well as credibility • If you are naturally outgoing, this style may best fit your personality

  28. 4. Put It ALL Together • Consider your use of pauses • Conversational style incorporates: • Calmness • Slowness • Softness Less intensity • Good eye contact and gestures • This style fits funeral ?????

  29. 4. Put It ALL Together • Select the Appropriate Type of Delivery

  30. 4. Put It All Together • Impromptu delivery • Impromptu delivery are given on the spur of the moment • When you must think of your foot • No preperation and rehearsal

  31. 4. Put It All Together • Memorized Delivery • Memorized delivery used to be common • Roman orators planed their speeches carefully, then memorized them word for word • In oral cultures, tribalk orators memorize the stories and legends of the tribe • Drawback. • Forget of what you memorized • Memoriezd speeches are not delivery conversationally • Do not sound natural • Do not engage the audience

  32. 4. Put It All Together • Manuscript Delivery • The most inactive method of presenting • Imparts a lot of information • Is acceptable on some occasions • To compensate use active speaker-listener interactions keep participant's attention longer, involve them mentally • For competent manuscript delivery, type your entire script in capital letters, using triple spacing • Make slashes where you pan to pause • Highlight or underline the words you wish to accent • Manuscript delivery is inappropriate for most classroom speeches

  33. 4. Put It All Together • Extemporaneous Delivery • In contrast to impromptu, you prepare extemporaneous carefully in advance • Do not plan every single word • Outline your major ideas • Use note cards with cue words

  34. 4. Put It All Together • The best delivery is a smart mingling of all four types

  35. Summary • Summary • The best delivery is a smart mingling of all four types