The North American Colonies A Background
Key Questions • Who came here? • Who was already here? • Who are the key players (people & nations) • Why did they come? • Where did they settle? • How does this lead to differences between the colonies?
European Exploration • Fueled by the Renaissance • The “questioning spirit” • Seeking trade routes • Cheaper goods • More profit • More money = more power for monarchs • Scientific developments • Compass • caravel
Spain Makes Claims • 1492 • Spain united & Muslims driven out • Spain to rival Portugal • Columbus sails west to go east • October lands in Bahamas
Spanish Claims • Caribbean Islands • Mexico • Peru • Florida • What was to be come the western United States
Question Time! • What language is the dominant language in the Canadian city of Toronto? • English • What language is the dominant language in the Canadian cities of Montreal and Quebec? • French • Why?!
The Creation of New France • The Northwest Passage • Fabled route through N. America to Pacific Ocean • French sent explorers to find it • Multiple explorations made • No passage found • No vast wealth found • Great fishing of Newfoundland • Why is this important?
The Creation of New France • 1602: Samuel de Champlain hired to found colony in Canada • Set up a primarily Huguenot colony • Very friendly with the Indians • Many Huguenots traded with Canada; few settled there • Catholic priests (Jesuits) eagerly converted Indians • Catholicism became only religion of New France
The Creation of New France • New France created to make money through fur trade and timber not farms • Few settled in New France • French continued to explore N. America • Jacques Marquette & Louis Joliet found Mississippi River • They claimed region for Louis XIV & called it Louisiana
The Creation of New France • Mississippi Gulf region terrible for living but great for growing sugar, rice & indigo • Slaves definitely needed for labor • French colonized St Domingue& Martinique • Primarily sugar plantations here • Attempted settlements in the Carolinas • Spanish created St Augustine in Florida to counter the French
Regroup • What were some of the reasons behind Europeans starting to explore N. America beginning in the late 15th century? • What territories did the Spanish claim in N. America? • Who founded New France? • What major river did Marquette & Joliet find?
The Dutch • Profit motivated the Dutch • Relatively tolerant; not overly religious • Founded Dutch East India Co. to compete with Portugal in East Indies & looked to expand into N. America • Dutch sent Henry Hudson to explore and sailed up river that now bears his name
The Dutch • Dutch refugees built fort at Fort Orange (Albany) but not permanent • Dutch claimed Hudson, Delaware & Connecticut valleys • Dutch bought Mannahatta Island (Manhattan) from Indians • Permanent Fort Orange established for fur trade with Iroquois
The Dutch • Created a pluralist society • Not just Dutch or Protestant • 1640s: 18 different languages spoken by 450 inhabitants of New Amsterdam (NY) • Tough to create unity against Indians or other Europeans
The English Arrive. Finally. • English made loose claim to N. American coast due to Cabot’s expedition to find Northwest Passage in 1497 • He failed & England ignored the new world for 80 years • England’s attention was taken by Protestant Reformation & war with Spain • Colonization would have to wait
The English Arrive. Finally. • Henry VIII breaks with Catholic Church • Forms Church of England (Protestant) • Son Edward VI takes over embraces Protestantism • Daughter Mary takes over & embraces Catholicism • Daughter Elizabeth takes over embraces Protestantism • Under Elizabeth I, England would begin to settle N. America
The English Arrive. Finally. • Under James I, those who wished to “purify” the Anglican Church received permission to settle in New World • Puritans would wind up in Plymouth in modern Massachusetts • Joint-stock companies formed to fund the settlement of colonies in New World • What is the point of having a business?
The English Arrive. Finally. • English attempted to make settlements on the east coast including in the Carolinas • Failed Roanoke colony • 1607: Virginia Company charted • Attempted one colony in Maine (failed) & one in Chesapeake Bay are • 104 settlers created Jamestown on James River
The English Arrive. Finally. • Jamestown • Unhealthy • Malaria, typhus, dysentery • Drought • “gentlemen” • “starving time” winter of 1609-1610 • Colony abandoned but quickly resettled
The English Arrive. Finally. • Jamestown settlers forced to work • Governed by company who could make the rules • Religion? • Tobacco introduced as cash crop • Soon grown in every available space in the colony • 1618: colonists granted right to create first General Assembly to make laws for colony • Met in July 1619 • Called House of Burgesses
The English Arrive. Finally. • Headright system introduced to increase settlement • Colonists received 50 acres of land for every person whose passage to Virginia they paid for • 1619: first Africans delivered by the Dutch • Servants, not slaves • Slaves imported by 1622
Maryland • Founded by Catholic George Calvert, Lord Baltimore • Charter granted for colony to be established for Catholics to practice freely • Colony owned by Baltimore • Proprietary colony • Could do whatever he wished so long as it was not against English law
George Calvert, Lord Baltimore
The Puritans • What is the root of the word? • Puritans in England fled to Netherlands to escape persecution • Children becoming “too Dutch” • Joined with Puritans in England to raise money to sail to America • Got permission from Virginia Company to settle in their colony • Mayflower sailed for Virginia September 1620
The Puritans • Mayflower eventually landed at Plymouth Bay • Theywere outside of the Virginia Co. territory & were squatters (no permission to be there) • Pilgrims drew up Mayflower Compact • Not a constitution but an agreement to follow majority rule • First winter difficult; more than half died • Second harvest bountiful; basis for Thanksgiving
Regroup • Who settled the Hudson, Connecticut & Delaware valleys? • What motivated the Dutch to create colonies? • Why did England wait so long to settle in N. America? • Who founded Maryland and what kind of colony was it? • What is the headright system?
Massachusetts Bay • 1625: Charles I persecutes Puritans • English economy weakens • 1629: Charter obtained from king for Massachusetts Bay Co. • Going to establish colony in New England • 1630: 1000 settlers (not all Puritans) settle in Salem • Charter is basis for colony’s laws
Massachusetts Bay • 1630: John Winthrop: “We shall be as a city on a hill” • Looking to create Puritan utopia • 1643: between 13-20K settlers arrived • Government based on charter which was not made public knowledge • Why?!
Massachusetts Bay • Colony’s charter provided for a General Court • Made up of “freemen” • Essentially stockholders & family heads • General court chose “assistants” who in turn chose governor and assistant governor • Winthrop violated charter & claimed he had power to make the laws • Charter gave that power to General Court
Massachusetts Bay • General Court eventually became representative body made of representatives from the various towns • Membership in a church became requirement to vote (not stock ownership) • Winthrop was attempting to preserve Puritan purity
Massachusetts Bay • Maintaining Puritan purity very difficult • Not everyone was a Puritan • Merchant class favored toleration • More settlers meant more business meant more money and power • Excessive punishments for gambling, adultery, & blasphemy • Dissenting views not accepted; heretics thrown out
Rhode Island • Roger Williams irritated everyone • Puritan churches not pure; no church can be pure • King cannot give away land of another people (Indians) • There must be complete separation of church & state • Laws requiring religious conformity were bad
Rhode Island • Williams arrested & to be sent back to England • Escaped and settled in Providence • Government had no authority over religion • Dissenters welcome • Anne Hutchinson also questioned established Puritan thinking & was banished to Rhode Island
Regroup • Who said “we shall be as a city on a hill?” • What did he mean? • How do the Puritans “create” Rhode Island? • Which segment of Massachusetts Bay favored religious toleration and why? • What gave a person the right to vote in Massachusetts?
New York & New Jersey • New Amsterdam settled by Dutch in 1620s • Dutch claimed NY due to Hudson’s exploration in 1609 • Charles II claimed NY for England because it was part of the Virginia Charter of 1606 • 1664: English fleet sent to NY; Dutch surrendered without fight
New York & New Jersey • NY was buffer between Iroquois 5 Nations & settlers • James’ colony was without an elected assembly; Dutch don’t mind so much but English get irritated • Land to west of Hudson given to 2 Carolina proprietors to create colony of New jersey
New York & New Jersey • English more inclined to settle in NJ with its elected assembly & religious freedom • Dutch stayed in NY • NJ cut into 2 separate colonies, East & West & reunited in 1702
Pennsylvania • Literally, “Penn’s forested land” • Supposed to be refuge for Quakers • Quakers: refused to take oaths (loyalty) and were pacifists • How will these positions make the other colonists feel? • Land came from debt owed to William Penn’s father by English crown
Pennsylvania • NJ’s religious freedom enticed Quakers to settle there & they migrated to west side of Delaware River • Penn kept relations with Indians positive • Quakers were pacifists who bought Indian lands • Peace for 50 years as a result