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Life-Span Development

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Life-Span Development

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  1. Life-Span Development

  2. Prenatal and Childhood Development

  3. The Beginnings of Life: Prenatal Development

  4. Prenatal Development • Prenatal defined as “before birth” • Prenatal stage begins at conception and ends with the birth of the child.

  5. Zygote • A fertilized egg • The first two weeks are a period of rapid cell division. • Attaches to the mother’s uterine wall • At the end of 14 days becomes an embryo

  6. Prenatal Development

  7. Embryo • Developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization until the end of the eight week • Most of the major organs are formed during this time. • At the end of the eight week the fetal period begins.

  8. Fetus • Developing human organism from nine weeks after conception to birth

  9. Placenta • A cushion of cells in the mother by which the fetus receives oxygen and nutrition • Acts as a filter to screen out substances that could harm the fetus

  10. Prenatal Development • Play “Teratogens and Their Effects on the Developing Brain and Mind” (12:44) Segment #12 from The Mind: Psychology Teaching Modules (2nd edition)

  11. Teratogens • Substances that cross the placental barrier and prevent the fetus from developing normally • Includes: radiation, toxic chemicals, viruses, drugs, alcohol, nicotine, etc.

  12. Prenatal Brain Development • Play “The Effects of Hormones and the Environment on Brain Development” (6:50) Module #2 from The Brain: Teaching Modules (2nd edition)

  13. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) • Physical and cognitive abnormalities that appear in children whose mothers consumed large amounts of alcohol while pregnant

  14. Alcohol • Play “Teratogens and Their Effects on the Developing Brain and Mind” (12:44) Segment #12 from The Mind: Psychology Teaching Modules (2nd edition)

  15. The Beginnings of Life: The Newborn

  16. Newborn and the Apgar Readings • Insert “Testing Competency In a Newborn” Video #13 from Worth’s Digital Media Archive for Psychology • Instructions for importing the video file can be found in the ‘Readme’ file on the CD-ROM

  17. Rooting Reflex • Baby’s tendency, when touched on the cheek, to open the mouth and search for the nipple • Is an automatic, unlearned response

  18. Reflexes in the Newborn • Insert “Reflexes in the Newborn” Video #14 from Worth’s Digital Media Archive for Psychology • Instructions for importing the video file can be found in the ‘Readme’ file on the CD-ROM

  19. Newborn Reflexes • Play “Capabilities of the Newborn” (3:59) Segment #13 from The Mind: Psychology Teaching Modules (2nd edition)

  20. Temperament • Person’s characteristic emotional excitability • A child might be: • An “easy” or “difficult” baby • Temperament shown in infancy appears to carry through a person’s life.

  21. Temperament • Play “Bringing Up Monkeys” (9:40) Segment #23 from Scientific American Frontiers: Video Collection for Introductory Psychology (2nd edition)

  22. Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood

  23. Infant, Toddler, Child • Infant: First year • Toddler: From about 1 year to 3 years of age • Child: Span between toddler and teen

  24. Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood: The Developing Brain

  25. Neural Development

  26. Maturation • Biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior

  27. Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood: Motor Development

  28. Motor Development • Includes all physical skills and muscular coordination

  29. Motor Development

  30. Motor Development • Play “Baby Body Sense” (11:00) Segment #24 from Scientific American Frontiers: Video Collection for Introductory Psychology (2nd edition)

  31. Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood: Piaget’s Cognitive Stages

  32. Jean Piaget • Pioneer in the study of developmental psychology who introduced a stage theory of cognitive development that lead to a better understanding of children’s thought processes • Proposed a theory consisting of four stages of cognitive development

  33. Cognition • All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, and remembering • Children think differently than adults do

  34. Child’s Thinking • Play “The Magic Years” (10:00) Segment #25 from Scientific American Frontiers: Video Collection for Introductory Psychology (2nd edition)

  35. Schemas • Concepts or mental frameworks that people use to organize and interpret information • Sometimes called schemes • A person’s “picture of the world”

  36. Assimilation • Interpreting a new experience within the context of existing schemas • The new experience is similar to other previous experiences

  37. Accommodation • Adapting current schemas to incorporate new information • The new experience is so novel the person’s schemata must be changed to accommodate it

  38. Assimilation/Accommodation

  39. Assimilation/Accommodation

  40. Assimilation/Accommodation

  41. Sensorimotor Stage • Piaget’s first stage of cognitive development • From birth to about age two • Child gathers information about the world through sensory impressions and motor activities • Child learns object permanence

  42. Object Permanence • Awareness that things continue to exist even when you cannot see or hear them • “Out of sight, out of mind”

  43. Object Permanence • Insert “Object Permanence” Video #15 from Worth’s Digital Media Archive for Psychology • Instructions for importing the video file can be found in the ‘Readme’ file on the CD-ROM

  44. Preoperational Stage • Piaget’s second stage of cognitive development • From about age 2 to age 6 or 7 • Children learns to use language but cannot yet think logically

  45. Egocentrism • In Piaget’s theory, the inability of the preoperational child to take another person’s point of view • Includes a child’s inability to understand that symbols can represent other objects

  46. Childhood Thinking • Play “A Change of Mind” (12:00) Segment #26 from Scientific American Frontiers: Video Collection for Introductory Psychology (2nd edition)

  47. Concrete Operational Stage • Piaget’s third stage of cognitive development • From about age 6 to 11 • Child gain the mental skills that let them think logically about concrete events • Learn conservation

  48. Conservation • An understanding that certain properties remain constant despite changes in their form • The properties can include mass, volume, and numbers.