Late November, 1862—May, 1863 • After a string of defeats, Lincoln named a new COMMANDER of the Union Forces… • General Ambrose Burnside. • Burnside was immediately thrashed by Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Fredericksburg and resigned, replaced by Joseph Hooker. • Hooker was badly beaten by Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville… • But Stonewall Jackson was killed by friendly fire. • These two defeats fueled rumors that Lincoln would resign the presidency.
Another Invasion • Although victorious on the battlefield… • The Confederate Army was constantly short on supplies… • Because most factories were located in the North. • In the summer of 1863, Robert E. Lee planned another INVASION of Union territory. • He hoped, once again, to break the North’s will to continue fighting… • To force Lincoln to seek a peace agreement… • And to capture some much-needed supplies.
Gettysburg • Lee’s invasion of the North centered around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania… • From which he hoped to continue on to Philadelphia… • His forces numbered 72,000… • The Union defense numbered 94,000… • The fighting began on July 1, 1863.
The objective of General Lee's attack on Gettysburg was to... iRespond Question Multiple Choice F A715B962-65C9-8F43-88C1-FC29D147C2CB A.) occupy and destroy Washington, D.C. B.) convince Northern politicians to give up fighting. C.) capture escaped slaves. D.) shut down the underground railroad. E.)
The Battle of Gettysburg • After two days of heavy fighting, Lee ordered the Confederates into a DIRECT ATTACK on the Union line… • The attack was made during a PAUSE in Union gunfire… • Which Lee believed to indicate that the Union army was out of ammunition… • However, they were simply RELOADING. • The Confederates made it halfway across the open mile between themselves and the Union line… • When the Union opened fire… • Half of the Confederate force was wiped out.
The Results of Gettysburg • The Union Army suffered 23,000 casualties. • The Confederates, lost 28,000– ONE THIRD of their entire army. • Lee’s reputation for INVINCIBILITY was destroyed • And the Confederates were forced to retreat back to Virginia. • This battle EVISCERATED the Confederate Army… • Devastated its morale… • And was the TURN OF THE TIDE in the Civil War.
Which statement best describes the impact of geography upon the events surrounding the Battle of Gettysburg? iRespond Question Multiple Choice F 23DB9FC8-6BCA-6B47-BCFA-35DA1843BAC0 A.) Gettysburg's close proximity to Washington D.C. caused the first ever evacuation of the national capital and the Presidential residence. B.) although General Lee and the Confederate Army were successfully able to invade Northern territory, the battle resulted in a horrific Confederate defeat. C.) an important component of the Anaconda Plan, the capture of Gettysburg allowed for Union control of the Mississippi River. D.) a key center of Southern trade due to its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, the capture of Gettysburg greatly reduced Confederate economic capacity. E.)
The Gettysburg Address • Four months after the Union’s victory at Gettysburg, Lincoln visited the battlefield to deliver a speech. • It lasted for a little over two minutes… • And is thought to be one of the greatest speeches in American history. • In the speech, Lincoln… • Defined the Civil War as not merely a struggle for Union… • But as a “new birth of freedom”… • That would bring EQUALITY to ALL citizens… • And would ensure the SURVIVAL of Democracy in America.
Which is the BEST description of ideas contained within the Gettysburg Address? iRespond Question Multiple Choice F 5D784BD0-B492-F149-A78F-9C9BAEE4146E A.) Lincoln used the speech to call for a return to the peaceful division between free and slave territory that had existed in the days before the Civil War. B.) Lincoln used the speech to memorialize soldiers killed in BOTH sides of the conflict and called for a national day of mourning. C.) Lincoln used the speech to redefine the concept of the United States, asserting that freedom and equality are the rights of all Americans. D.) Lincoln used the speech to call for the national ratification of the 13th Amendment and the immediate and unconditional end to slavery. E.)
The Battle of Vicksburg • The city of Vicksburg, Mississippi was a Confederate stronghold and the key to control of the Mississippi River… • However, the city was on high ground, making it very difficult to attack. • Union General Ulysses S. Grant was given the responsibility of capturing the city… • And was forced to spend several months fighting his way close enough to begin a siege… • For several weeks, Union artillery bombarded the city with almost 3000 shells a day… • And Confederate forces, down to one biscuit and one piece of bacon per day, surrendered on July 4, 1863. • The victory put the Mississippi in Union hands and the Confederacy was cut in half.
1864 • 1864 was an election year… • And Confederate hopes rested on Abraham Lincoln being DEFEATED… • His opponent, George McClellan, called for a peace agreement with the Confederacy. • Desperate for a big victory before the November election… • Lincoln promoted William T. Sherman to the command of forces in the West… • And Ulysses S. Grant to commander of ALL Union forces.
General Shermanin Georgia • Union forces under General William T. Sherman launched an invasion of Georgia in the late summer of 1864… • The Union objective was to seize Atlanta, an important Southern rail center… • The invasion was stopped at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain—in which 3000 Union soldiers died in three hours… • But Confederate defenses were eventually OUTFLANKED, forcing their retreat. • Sherman eventually got close enough to Atlanta to lay siege… • And when the Confederates evacuated the city, Sherman ordered it burned to the ground.
Sherman’s March to the Sea • After burning Atlanta, Sherman’s next objective was the port city of Savannah… • And in his “march to the sea”, Sherman ordered his troops to • Make Georgia Howl… • Cutting a 300-mile long path of utter devastation across the state from Atlanta to Savannah… • Every house, bridge, railroad, farm and factory in the Union Army’s path was destroyed. • And Sherman captured Savannah on December 22, without a fight. The preparation of Sherman Neckties
The goal of General Sherman's invasion of the South was... iRespond Question Multiple Choice F 7ADB9DCA-A945-E34A-8BD5-95B033398BE9 A.) to occupy and destroy the city of Birmingham, Alabama. B.) break the South's will to continue fighting. C.) cause the defeat of Abraham Lincoln in the 1864 election. D.) capture Confederate President Jefferson Davis. E.)
The Election of 1864 • Sherman’s capture of Atlanta ensured Lincoln’s victory… • And three months later, Congress passed the 13th Amendment… • Which OUTLAWED slavery in the ENTIRE United States.
Sherman Moves North • After taking Savannah, Sherman moved into South Carolina… • And directed his forces to DESTROY the state… • As punishment for the FIRST SHOTS fired at Ft. Sumter. • Nearly every building in the Union army’s path was destroyed… • And Columbia—the capital—was entirely demolished.
Grant and Lee at Appomattox • As Sherman moved north, Grant moved south… • And General Lee’s Confederate forces found themselves surrounded… • In the town of Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia. • Lee briefly considered taking his army to the hills to wage guerilla war… • But instead opted to surrender.
General Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse because... iRespond Question Multiple Choice F BCEFBCC7-F8F2-D04E-B54A-8F72881B469D A.) his troops were trapped by the Union Army. B.) he realized that the South had been wrong to secede. C.) Lincoln visited him and requested that he stop fighting. D.) he was seriously wounded. E.)
The Terms of Peace • Southern soldiers were allowed take their horses and mules and go home. • They would not be punished as long as they obeyed the law. • They could also keep their rifles. • Finally, Grant offered to feed the starving Confederate Army. • And Grant forbade all celebration by Union troops– “The rebels are our countrymen again.”
How Lincoln aged during his term of office is evident when one compares Alexander Hesler’s portrait, taken in February, 1860 with one by an unnamed photographer, taken in April, 1865.
Lincoln’s Assassination • From 1864 to 1865, a group of conspirators had been working on a plan to help the Confederacy. • The conspirators were led by failed actor, John Wilkes Booth. • The plan was to DECAPITATE the executive branch of the US Government… • By killing Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Vice President Andrew Johnson and Secretary of State William Seward. • Grant was engaged in battle and untouchable by the killers… • Johnson’s assassin lost his nerve at the last minute… • Seward was stabbed in the neck, but survived… • And Lincoln was shot in the back of the head while watching a play at Ford’s Theater in D.C. • He died on April 15, 1865… • Booth and his co-conspirators were captured and executed.