USH Unit 3 Crisis, Civil War and Reconstruction- Answers Complete the Guided Reading as you view the power point.
Goal 3 • Objective 3.01: Trace the economic, social, and political events from the Mexican War to the outbreak of the Civil War. • Essential Questions: • • How did the issues of sectionalism lead to the Civil War? • • How did political, economic, and social differences develop into the sectionalism that split the North and the South? • • To what extent did differing opinions on slavery as well as the institution’s expansion become a deciding factor in instituting a Civil War?
Goal 3 • Objective 3.02: Analyze and assess the causes of the Civil War. • Essential Questions: • • How did the issues of sectionalism lead to the Civil War? • • To what extent was slavery the primary cause of the Civil War? • • What did a federal union of states mean politically and socially before and after the Civil War?
Discovery Education Videos • Conflict Over Slavery in the United States
Legislation Regarding Slavery • The debate over slavery grew more heated as more states were admitted into the United States (the Union) • Southern states wanted new slave states added • Northern states wanted free states added • The Missouri Compromise of 1820 was supposed to help maintain the balance of power among free and slave states • Why is it important? • In Congress slave states would vote with slave states and free states would vote with free states when making laws • Each side wanted to have more power than the other when laws were made in the Legislative Branch • The side with more votes could defeat the other side
Legislation Regarding Slavery • When California and New Mexico were gained from Mexico the debate continued • Would these new territories be free or slave? • Henry Clay proposed the Compromise of 1850 • California would be admitted as free • Unorganized western territories would be free • Utah and New Mexico would be decided by popular sovereignty • Popular Sovereignty: People vote to decide issues (the people have the power with popular sovereignty) • Fugitive Slave law: part of the Compromise of 1850- stated that northern states had to return escaped slaves to their owners in the South • The south liked the law • Many northerners did not obey the law
Legislation Regarding Slavery • Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854: allowed the previously free unorganized territories of Kansas and Nebraska to use popular sovereignty to determine if they would be free or slave • The Kansas-Nebraska Act repealed the Missouri Compromise that set boundaries on free and slave states
Legislation Regarding Slavery • Kansas-Nebraska Act reignited the slavery controversy • People from the North and South rushed to Kansas to help influence the vote • People on different sides of the issue fought each other to the point that it became known as Bleeding Kansas
Legislation Regarding Slavery • The Kansas-Nebraska Act caused angry debates in Washington, D.C. also • In Congress Charles Sumner made a speech against slavery that lasted for two days • In the speech he attacked the authors of the Act- Stephen Douglas and Andrew Butler • A few days later in the Senate Sumner was approached by Preston Brooks, a South Carolina congressman who was angry about Sumner’s speech • Brooks beat Sumner with his cane • Sumner was so injured he was not able to work for 3 years • It became known as the Sumner-Brooks Incident • Why is it important? • Was an example of how heated the debate over slavery was
The Dred Scott Decision • Dred Scott was a slave in Missouri • His owner took him to a free territory to live for four years • The owner took Dred Scott back to Missouri • When his owner died Dred Scott sued for his freedom because he had lived in a free state • Dred Scott lost in court
The Dred Scott Decision • Why is it important? • The Supreme Court ruled that Dred Scott had no right to sue because he was a slave and slaves were not citizens • Supreme Court also said a slave owner could not have his property taken away without due process of law • Supreme Court struck down the Missouri Compromise because it said it was a violation of the 5th amendment to declare slaves free of their owners without due process of law even if the slave had entered a free state (because they were property not people) • Abolitionists and people who supported popular sovereignty were ANGRY
Birth of the Republican Party • Free Soilers: political party of people who opposed slavery in new territories (wanted freedom on new soil) • Know-Nothings: Political Party opposed to immigration • In 1854 a group of Democrats, Whigs, Free Soilers, and former Know-Nothings joined together to for the Republican Party • The Republican Party did not call for the abolition of slavery, but it did support the free soilers position of no slavery in new territories
The Lincoln Douglas Debates • 1858 Republican Party nominated Abraham Lincoln to run for senate against Democrat Stephen Douglas • The two men debated the issue of slavery- Douglas for slavery, Lincoln against slavery • Douglas tried to appeal to both the North and the South • Freeport Doctrine: Douglas said slavery could not be implemented if there were no laws to govern it- if a territory had no slave laws then it could not have slaves • Douglas won the election
Uncle Tom’s Cabin and the Underground Railroad • Politicians fought to maintain peace in the nation • Others took action • Slave Codes: laws that limited the actions of slaves • Slave codes and harsh treatment of slaves in the South led people to believe they could not wait for laws to stop slavery- they believed they had to take action immediately
Uncle Tom’s Cabin and the Underground Railroad • Harriet Tubman: an escaped slave who returned to the South 19 times to help slaves escape on the Underground Railroad • Underground Railroad: a network of people who helped slaves escape to the North and sometimes Canada • Harriet Beecher Stowe: A white woman who had never been a slave who wrote the book Uncle Tom’s Cabin in 1852 about a fictional account of the horrors faced by a slave family in the South • Why is it important? • Northerners believed the book and supported the abolition movement • Southerners were angry and said it was a book of lies
Discovery Education Videos • Underground Railroad • Abolitionists and the Underground Railroad
John Brown’s Raid • John Brown: a very active abolitionist • October 1859: John Brown and his followers attacked a federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry in Virginia • They wanted to take the weapons out of the arsenal and give them to slaves to help them rebel • Colonel Robert E. Lee and his troops surrounded the arsenal and forced Brown and his followers to surrender • Brown was hanged • Why is it important? • Southern resentment toward the abolition movement grew
Discovery Education Video • Harper’s Ferry
Election of 1860 and Southern Secession • At the time of the Presidential Election of 1860 the country was divided in half between those who supported slavery and those opposed • At the democratic Convention the Democratsspilt in half between North and South • Each set of Democrats nominated their own candidate for president • The Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln • Lincoln saw slavery as a moral evil
Election of 1860 and Southern Secession • The South feared Lincoln would end slavery across the country • Lincoln won the election without winning any southern electoral votes • Why is it important? • When Lincoln won the election South Carolina took the action of seceding from the Union in December 1860 • To secede means to leave the United States
Election of 1860 and Southern Secession • Other Southern states followed South Carolina's action and left the Union as well • Delegates from the seceded states met in Alabama to draft their own constitution • They elected Jefferson Davis to be their president • They named their new union The Confederate States of America
Fort Sumter • Union soldiers were located at Fort Sumter in South Carolina • President Lincoln knew the soldiers there were low on food and ammunition • President Lincoln’s main goal was to keep the Union united as one nation • Out of respect he notified the Governor of South Carolina that he was going to send food, but no ammunition to his soldiers in Fort Sumter • Before the supplies could arrive in April 1861 Confederate soldiers attacked the Union soldiers at Fort Sumter
Fort Sumter • After the surprise attack the Union soldiers surrendered • President Lincoln then called for 75,000 volunteers to fight against the Confederacy • States located in the middle of the Union (known as border states) had to decide which side they would fight for the Union or the Confederacy • The capital of the Confederacy was moved to Richmond, Virginia • Why is it important? • This began the Civil War!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Goal 3 • Objective 3.03: Identify political and military turning points of the Civil War and assess their significance to the outcome of the conflict. • Essential Questions: • • Why are the Battle of Gettysburg and the Siege of Vicksburg considered the military turning points of the Civil War? • • How did the political actions of President Lincoln affect the outcome of the war? • • Was it inevitable that the North would win the war?
The Civil War
Union States Maine New Hampshire Vermont Massachusetts Connecticut Rhode Island New York Pennsylvania New Jersey Ohio Indiana Michigan Illinois Iowa Wisconsin Minnesota Kansas California Nevada Oregon
Border States • Kentucky Missouri Delaware Maryland • Border States: States that refused to give up slavery, but also refused to secede from the Union. • The Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 did not grant freedom to slaves in the border states, so that they would not have an excuse to secede from the Union. • West Virginia broke away from Virginia in 1863 and joined the Union.
The Two Sides of the Civil War • The North = the Union = the United States- no slaves • The South = the Confederacy = side that left the United States and formed their own nation- had slaves
Key Figures of the Civil War • Abraham Lincoln: President of the United States and the first Republican president • General Ulysses S. Grant: General of Union forces in Civil war, accepted general Lee’s surrender, became 18th president of the United States • George McClellan: Lincoln wanted him to command the Union army but he was too weak of a leader- tried to run for president in 1864 but lost to Lincoln
Key Figures of the Civil War • General William Sherman: Union General, his defeat of Atlanta in 1864 helped Lincoln win the election of 1864, famous for his “march to the sea” where he burned southern cities and railroads to defeat the South • Jefferson Davis: President of the Confederate States of America • General Robert E. Lee: Commander of Confederate army, surrendered to General Grant in 1865
Key Figures of the Civil War • General Stonewall Jackson: The “right hand man” of General Robert E. Lee, he was a brilliant leader, led his troops in a surprise attack on the Union at Chancellorsville, Virginia- accidentally shot by his own troops from North Carolina, left arm had to be amputated, died from pneumonia while recovering from wound • Why is it important? • General Lee said “Jackson lost his left arm, but I have lost my right.” • Many believe if Jackson had lived the South could have won the War • Gettysburg was 2 months later- without Jackson it was a horrible loss for Confederacy
Key Battles of the Civil War
The First Battle of Bull Run (July 21, 1861) • Also known as First Manassas • First confrontation between the North and the South • The Union lost • The loss made the North realize the war would be longer than they had expected • The loss led Lincoln to adopt general Winfield Scott’s “Anaconda Plan” • Anaconda Plan: to cut off Southern supplies and communication by… • Taking control of the Mississippi River • Cutting Confederate territory • And beginning coastal blockades • The Union’s goal was to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond
The First Battle of Bull Run (July 21, 1861) • The South intended to fight until help arrived from France or England • The South was at a disadvantage because they did not have the industrial power of the North- meaning they didn’t have factories to make supplies and ammunition for the War • The South had a deep desire to fight and defend their homeland • The Civil War was fought on two fronts called theaters: Eastern and Western
The Eastern Theater:Antietam (September 17, 1862) • The South defeated the North at the Second Battle of Bull Run • General Lee thought the time was right to invade the North • The North found General Lee’s invasion plan and were prepared for their attack at Antietam Creek, Maryland • The battle of Antietam was the bloodiest day of the War • Why is it important? • Antietam halted the Confederate advance toward the North • General McClellan was a weak general and when he hesitated to defeat general Lee the South was able to escape and continue to fight the War • President Lincoln freed the slaves in January 1863 after the battle
Discovery Education Videos • Antietam National Battlefield
Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863) • Gettysburg, Pennsylvania- 2 months after the death of Stonewall Jackson at Chancellorsville • Without Jackson to lead and motivate them, General George Meade led the Union in a victory over the Confederacy • Why is it important? • 51,000 soldiers died • It was the bloodiest battle of the Civil War • It was a turning point for both the North and the South • The South had no hope of ever defeating the North after the battle
Gettysburg • Gettysburg Address: November 1863 President Lincoln went to Gettysburg to dedicate a cemetery to the fallen soldiers of the battle • He described the Civil War as a fight to preserve the nation • He stated “…government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth.”
Discovery Education Videos • Gettysburg: Turning Point of the Civil War • The Obstacle of Emmitsburg Road • President Lincoln The Gettysburg Address • The Gettysburg Address
The Western Theater
Vicksburg (May 15 – July 4, 1863) • Vicksburg, Mississippi was the last town standing in the way of the Union having total control of the Mississippi River • Siege: strategy by which an army surrounds its enemy, cuts off their supplies, and starves them into surrendering • General Grant laid siege to Vicksburg for two months • By the time of the surrender of Vicksburg in July the people had been forced to eat horses, mules, dogs, and even cats • Why is it important? • The Union gained control of the Mississippi River
Discovery Education Videos • Two Turning Points: the Battles of Vicksburg and Gettysburg
Sherman’s March (May – December 1864) • General Sherman and Union forces captured Atlanta in September 1864 • This victory helped President Lincoln win re-election • Sherman burned Atlanta to the ground • From Atlanta he continued his “march to the sea” to destroy Southern bridges, factories, and railroad lines • Sherman burned a 300 mile path across Georgia • Savannah, Georgia surrendered without a fight • After Georgia Sherman turned North and headed for the Carolinas to trap General Lee’s army between himself and General Grant
Political Issues of the War • President Lincoln was worried that if Maryland was to join the South the nation’s capital of Washington, D.C. would be surrounded by Confederate territory • To prevent Maryland’s secession President Lincoln took drastic action • He declared martial law in Maryland • He suspended the writ of habeas corpus- now people could be put in prison without being brought before a judge • He jailed the strongest supporters of the Confederacy • Why is it important? • Allowed Maryland’s legislature to vote in favor of remaining with the Union
Political Issues of the War • President Lincoln made a lot of people mad when he began to use the draft during the Civil War • Poor people and immigrants did not like the draft • Rich people could buy their way out of the draft for $300 or they could hire a substitute to fight in their place • Why is it important? • Draft riots broke out • More than 100 people died • 11 African Americans were lynched by immigrants and poor people who blamed them for the Civil War