Early Childhood: Intensive Instruction’12-13 Amy Matthews, Ph.D. & Jamie Owen-DeSchryver, Ph.D. Grand Valley State University Linda Elenbaas, M.A. Spring Lake Schools / OAISD
Welcome Back and Review Intensive Teaching/Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) ABA Components Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT)/Intensive Teaching and NET Preparing for intensive teaching Agenda
Intensive, Individualized Intervention What is it? Why is it critical?
Why was Anne Sullivan’s teaching successful? • Individualized • Intensive • Repetition • Follow through • Targeted • High expectations • Failure was not an option
More Learning Opportunities Provide individualized intensive teaching to increase learning for students who do not learn from the natural environment or through typical classroom activities
Presenting Instruction 3 R’s Request (Stimulus) Response Reaction (Consequence)
Presenting Instruction PROMPT REINFORCEMENT What makes the behavior happen REQUEST RESPONSE REACTION What increases the chance the behavior will happen again Instruction “Do This”: Imitation “MATCH”: Pre-academic “Do Puzzle”: Play Skills “Give me the . . .”: Receptive Language
The 3 Rs are what we call a “Learning Opportunity” or “Learning Trial”
100% success is expected so… Failure is not an option Using the 3 Rs… Don’t make a request unless you can follow through A child will be assisted until he is successful
Who presents Where to present What do you present How to prompt How to reinforce How many times to present How quickly to present More About the 3 Rs Request Response Reaction
What is ABA? The Basics of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) ABA is Good Teaching
What is ABA? ABA systematically applies procedures based on behavioral principles to the instruction and modification of socially significant behaviors.
Why ABA? • Based on over 60 years of scientific evidence • Research supports intensive, structured intervention • Best way to prepare young children with ASD to learn • Effective way to teach many new skills • Individualized and intensive • Ongoing monitoring through data collection
ABA as a Broad Science • Applied behavior analysis contributes to a full range of areas including: AIDS prevention, conservation of natural resources, education, gerontology, health and exercise, industrial safety, language acquisition, littering, medical procedures, parenting, seatbelt use, severe mental disorders, sports, and zoo management and care of animals. ABA-based interventions have gained recent popularity in the last 20 years related to teaching students with ASD.
What is ABA? • ABA is Not: • Only applicable to young children with ASD. It can be used with any age group and individuals with and without various disabilities.
Applied Behavior Analysis The broad approach to changing behavior based on behavioral principles
Seat-Belt Use • Negative reinforcement tactics work to increase seatbelt use unless buzzing can be disconnected • Research would suggest positive reinforcement strategies will increase use • Researchers suggest: a light on the license plate to indicate the belt is buckled followed by a large scale community effort to reward drivers for their use, including entrance to “fast” traffic lane, discounts given by businesses with drive-thru window (banks, fast food, etc) Geller, E.S., Casali, J.G., & Johnson, R.P. (1980). Seat belt usage: A potential target for applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 13(4) pp. 669-675.
ABA methods are used to support persons with autism in at least six ways: • to increase behaviors (e.g. reinforcement procedures increase on-task behavior, or social interactions); • to teach new skills (e.g. systematic instruction and reinforcement procedures teach functional life skills, communication skills, social skills); • to maintain behaviors (e.g. teaching self control and self-monitoring procedures to stay on task);
ABA methods are used to support persons with ASD in at least six ways: to generalize or to transfer behavior from one situation or response to another (e.g. from completing assignments in the resource room to performing as well in the general ed classroom); to restrict or narrow conditions under which interfering behaviors occur (e.g. playing with trains has a time and a place); and to reduce interfering behaviors (e.g. aggression, stereotypy)
Different Forms of ABA Teaching • Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) • Incidental Teaching • Verbal Behavior • PECS • Pivotal Response Training
ABA Credential • ABA isn’t just another strategy • It is a field of study based on many years of research that serves as a foundational approach to teaching • Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) is the credential given to people with significant expertise and experience with ABA Behavior Analysis Certification Board (BACB) – www.bacb.com
ABA and Evidence-based Practice • ABA is listed as an evidence-based practice by: • National Professional Development Center on ASD • National Standards Project • Association for Science in Autism Treatment • Numerous recent books and articles on evidence-based practice
ABA Effectiveness • According to a cost/benefit analysis conducted by Jacobson, Mulick & Green (1996), competently-delivered, early, intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) can offer the hope of unprecedented gains for both children and taxpayers: estimated savings per child to age 22 are about $200,000; to age 55, $1,000,000. • Similar analysis by Chasson, Harris, & Neely (2007) suggested the use of EIBI can lead to a savings of $208,500 per child across 18 years of education in the state of TX.
According to Ganz (2006), ninety percent of children with ASD who are deprived of intensive, effective early intervention will require special or custodial care throughout their lives, and this is estimated to cost the United States $35 billion dollars a year.
Getting STARTed with Intensive Teaching • First, we need to review some of the basic components of ABA • Many of them will look familiar to you; you might be surprised that much of it isn’t new!
ABA Components • Prompting • Errorless Learning • Reinforcement • Behavioral Momentum • Stages of Learning
Prompting • Prompting involves helping the child give the correct response after a given request. • When learning new tasks, a child needs help to understand the connection between the request and the desired response. • Prompts increase the success of the student. • Prompting may occur at the same time as the request, right after the request, or even before the request.
Summary: Types of Prompts • Verbal prompts • Visual prompts • Model prompts • Picture prompts • Gestural prompts • Positional prompts • Physical prompts • Blocking • Initiation prompts • Full Physical prompts
Verbal Prompts • Verbal prompt involves providing a verbal instruction, cue, or model, or overemphasizing the correct word in an array of choices (direct and indirect).
Visual Prompts Model prompts is the acting out of the target behavior by the adult or another child with the hope that the child will imitate. Picture prompts provide a visual cue to the child. Gestural prompts includes pointing to, looking at, moving, or touching an item or area to indicate a correct response. Positional prompts involves arranging the materials of the trial so that the correct item is in a position advantageous to the child.
Physical Prompts Blocking involves stopping an incorrect response or behavior before it occurs Initiation prompts involves helping the child to begin an action to complete a task Physical prompts involves actually touching the child.
Prompting • Using the right level of prompting • Least to most (reduces dependency) • Most to least (errorless learning)
Errorless Learning • Learning it wrong • Have you ever… • Learned a name and later discovered it was the wrong name • Made a wrong turn the first time going somewhere and then made the same mistake next time • Added the wrong ingredient to a recipe and then did it again
When are errors not okay? Surgery Pilots Bridge architects When it will take just as much work to unlearn errors
Errorless Learning • In errorless learning, children only learn the correct skill. That is, the teacher teaches in such a manner that students do not make any mistakes. As a result, they do not learn an incorrect skill that will have to be corrected or re-taught.
It might look like cheating but it isn’t • Examples: • You’re wearing blue shoes. If you have blue shoes, line up. • My name is Miss Lisa. Who am I? • “Raise your hand” while modeling raise hand and providing an initiation prompt. • This is a truck. What is this? • You have an apple and milk for lunch. What are you having for lunch? While showing a picture of apple and milk.
Errorless Learning Errorless learning offers the following benefits: • Minimizes the number of errors • Increases time available for instruction • Reduces the likelihood that errors will be repeated in the future • Reduces frustration and increases opportunities for reinforcement
Errorless Learning • Prompting leads to success 90-100% of the time • Errorless process: • Give an instruction once • Wait for a response; prompt before an error occurs within 3-5 seconds of request • When a child is first learning a skill, the prompt may be immediate
When to use Has few skills/acquisition phase Unlikely to learn without many trials, supported by prompts When not to use Has skills; working on mastery or fluency When to use Errorless Learning
Prompting Cautions • Watch for unplanned prompts (e.g. Clever Hans) • Beware of prompt dependency
Goal is to use the least amount of prompting necessary to get the child to respond correctly
Prompt fading Gradually reduce the level of prompting needed. For example: Full physical to partial physical Full physical to gestural Model to verbal Verbal to visual Time delay Delay prompt by 1-3 seconds Fade Prompts
Prompting: Application/Activity • Consider 2 tasks • Dressing or completing a drawing activity • Identifying features of an object or labeling pictures • How would you prompt your student in these tasks • Most to least – errorless teaching • Least to most • How would you fade
ABA Components • Prompting • Errorless Learning • Reinforcement • Behavioral Momentum • Stages of Learning
Reinforcement • All people use reinforcement in every day life. • Something is a reinforcer if it increases the behavior that occurred immediately before the reinforcer was delivered.
Reinforcement • A reinforcer can be positive or negative. • Positive – giving something to increase a behavior, like a smile, a cookie or a toy • Negative- taking something away to increase a behavior, like turning off the alarm clock, or a teacher removing a demand so the child will stop screaming.