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Head Trauma PowerPoint Presentation
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Head Trauma

Head Trauma

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Head Trauma

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Presentation Transcript

  1. 181st INF BDE Combat Lifesaver Plus Head Trauma

  2. Overview Anatomy of head and brain Pathophysiology of traumatic injury Assessment, management, potential problems Head Trauma -

  3. Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) • Major cause of death and disability • Present in 40% of multiple trauma casualties Head Trauma -

  4. Head Trauma Open • Skull compromised and brain exposed Closed • Skull not compromised and brain not exposed Head Trauma -

  5. Head Injuries Scalp wound • Highly vascular, bleeds briskly • Shock: child may develop • Shock: adult another cause • Management • No unstable fracture: direct pressure, dressings • Unstable fracture: dressings, avoid direct pressure Head Trauma -

  6. Head Injuries Skull fracture • Linear nondisplaced • Depressed • Compound Suspect fracture • Large contusion or darkened swelling Management • Dressing, avoid excess pressure Head Trauma -

  7. Basilar Skull Fracture Battle’s sign Raccoon eyes Head Trauma -

  8. Bullet Fragments Head Injuries Penetrating trauma Head Trauma -

  9. Forces that cause skull fracture can also cause brain injury. Head Trauma -

  10. Brain Injury Primary brain injury • Immediate damage due to force • Coup and contracoup Management • Directed at prevention Head Trauma -

  11. Brain Injury Secondary brain injury • Results from hypoxia or decreased perfusion • Develops over hours Management • Rapid evacuation care can help prevent Head Trauma -

  12. Early effortsto maintain brain perfusioncan be life-saving. Head Trauma -

  13. Brain Injuries Concussion • No structural injury to brain • Level of consciousness • Variable period of unconsciousness or confusion • Followed by return to normal consciousness • Retrograde short-term amnesia • May repeat questions over and over • Associated symptoms • Dizziness, headache, ringing in ears, and/or nausea Head Trauma -

  14. Decreased level of consciousnessis an early indicator ofbrain injury or rising ICP Head Trauma -

  15. Head Trauma Assessment Casualty Evaluation Limit patient agitation, straining • Contributes to elevated ICP Airway • Vomiting very common within first hour Head Trauma -

  16. Pupils Both dilated Unilaterally dilated • Reactive: ICP increasing • Nonreactive (altered LOC): increased ICP • Nonreactive (normal LOC): not from head injury • Nonreactive: brainstem • Reactive: often reversible Anisocoria Eyelid closure • Slow: cranial nerve III • Fluttering: often hysteria Head Trauma -

  17. Summary Early detection and rapid transport is essential Key actions • Rapid assessment, airway management, prevent hypotension, frequent Ongoing Exams • Altered mental status is common Head Trauma -

  18. Discussion Head Trauma -