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Head Trauma PowerPoint Presentation
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Head Trauma

Head Trauma

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Head Trauma

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    1. Head Trauma

    2. Head Injuries: Account for about one half of all trauma deaths Survivors range from baseline function to severe morbidity Even minor head injury can have severe impact As with most trauma, broken down into blunt and penetrating

    3. Anatomy of Nervous System The nervous system is composed of Brain Spinal cord The nervous system is divided into: Central nervous system (Brain & Spinal Cord) Peripheral nervous system

    4. Physiology of Nervous System Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) Main Arterial Pressure (MAP) Intracranial Pressure (ICP) Cerebral Perfusion Pressure (CPP) CPP = MAP ICP

    5. Injuries to the Brain & Skull Scalp injuries Skull injuries Brain injuries

    6. Scalp Injuries Scalp has many blood vessels so injury may bleed profusely. Control bleeding with direct pressure. Dont apply pressure when there is possible skull injury.

    7. Skull injuries It include fractures to the cranium and the face, can be associated with brain injury. It is divided into: Open skull fracture: cranium is fractures and scalp is lacerated. Closed skull fracture: scalp is lacerated but cranium is intact. Basal skull fracture

    8. S & S of Skull Fractures and Brain Injuries Visible bone fragments Altered mental status Deep lacerated or severe bruise or hematoma Depression or deformity of the skull Severe pain at site of injury Battles Sign Unequal or unreative pupils Raccoons eye Sunken eye Bleeding from the ears and/or nose Clear fluid flow from ears and/or nose Personality change Increased blood pressure, decreased pulse rate and widening pulse pressure (Cushings Syndrome) Irregular breathing pattern Temperature increase Blurred or multiple vision Impaired hearing or ringing Equilibrium problems Forceful or projectile vomiting Posturing Paralysis or disability on one side of the body Seizures Deteriorating vital signs

    9. Brain Injuries Primary (Direct) Brain Injuries Secondary (Indirect) Injuries

    10. Primary Brain Injuries It occur at the time of original insult Direct damage done to brain parenchyma and associated with vascular injuries Brain tissue can be lacerated, punctured or bruised by broken bones or foreign bodies Damage is already done Irreversible Damage control (debridement)

    11. Secondary Brain Injury Damage that occurs after the initial insult (ongoing injury processes) Expanding mass lesions, swelling or bleeding quickly overwhelm buffers End result is increased intracranial pressure (ICP) and/or herniation Diagnosis and treatments target minimizing the effects of these indirect insults

    12. Secondary Injury Mechanisms Mass effect and subsequent elevated ICP and mechanical shifting leading to herniation Hypoxia Hypotension and inadequate CBF Cellular mechanisms

    13. Intracranial Causes Herniation: displaced brain parenchyma Damage to brain from trauma against the dura itself as well as producing ischemia as well Cerebral Edema: intracellular fluid collection within neurons and interstitial spaces. Intracerebral Hematomas

    14. Brain Injuries Brain Concussion Usually caused by blunt injuries. Injuries patient shows transient alteration in neurologic function Mild injury usually with no detectable brain damage. May have brief loss of consciousness. Headache grogginess and short memory loss are common.

    15. Brain Injuries Brain Contusion A bruised brain or contusion can occur with closed head injuries. Usually caused by blow that causes the brain to hit inside the skull Unconsciousness or decreased level of consciousness can occur

    16. Brain Injuries A hematoma Is a collection of blood within tissue. Hematoma inside the cranium is named according to its location: Subdural hematoma: blood collection between brain and dura Epidural hematoma: blood collection between dura and the skull Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Intracerebral hematoma: blood collection within the brain

    17. Epidural Hematomas Blood between inner table of the skull and the dura Lens shaped hematomas that do not cross suture lines on CT

    18. Subdural Hematomas Blood beneath the dura, overlying the brain and arachnoid, resulting from tears to bridging vessels Crescent shaped density that may run length of skull Very common in the elderly

    19. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Bleeding beneath the arachnoid membrane on the surface of the brain.

    20. Intracranial Hematoma Focal areas of hemorrhage within the parenchyma

    21. ER Care of Skull Fractures and Brain Injuries Take appropriate body substance isolation precautions. Assume spine injury Monitor conscious patient for changes in breathing Apply rigid collar, immobilize the neck and spine Administer high concentration oxygen by NRM Control bleeding Keep patient at rest Talk to conscious patient (emotional support) Dress and bandage open wounds Mange the patient for shock Be prepared for vomiting Transport patient promptly Monitor vital signs every five minutes