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Head Trauma

Head Trauma

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Head Trauma

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Head Trauma Meira Louis Rob Lafreniere August 25, 2011

  2. Outline • Case 1 (10-15 min) • Mild concussion in adolescent • When to image? • Return to play guidelines • Case 2 (10 minutes) • Skull fractures • Case 3 (30 min) • Severe TBI • Priorities in management • Intubation • Cooling • Case 4 (30 min) • Moderate TBI • Seizure prophylaxis • Anticoagulation management • Herniation

  3. Structure • Group work (30 minutes) • Cases 1-4 (25-30 minutes each)

  4. Case 1 • 16yo playing hockey • Checked into boards wearing helmet • 20 second LOC • 1 hour later, has headache and amnesia • Seen in the WRC section of the PLC P 72 RR 14 BP 110/75 Sat 99% T 36.9

  5. To image or not to image? • Decision one: child or adult?

  6. Adult Decision Rules VS

  7. NEXUS II • 1. Evidence of significant skull fracture • 2. Scalp haematoma • 3. Neurologic deficit • 4. Altered level of alertness • 5. Abnormal behaviour • 6. Coagulopathy • 7. Persistent vomiting • 8. Age greater than 65 years

  8. What about the children?

  9. What’s the catch?

  10. Can we skip the CT altogether?

  11. Second Impact Syndrome

  12. Return to Play

  13. Case 2a

  14. Case 2b Case 2b

  15. Case 2c

  16. Case 3 • 28yo male assaulted with metal pole • GCS on scene 6 • Obvious large hematoma to temple • No other significant injuries P 120 RR 16 BP 95/65 Sat 99% on NRB

  17. Priorities of Management

  18. Priorities of Management

  19. Drugs to Intubate

  20. Peds Drugs for Intubation

  21. Lidocaine for premedication? What about Fentanyl ?

  22. Prophylactic Cooling

  23. Case 4 • 72yo male who fell off the bank of the Bow River while fishing • Brief LOC, GCS 15 at the PLC • Transferred to FMC as one hour later GCS had begun to decline P 70 RR 8 BP 150/105 Sat 99% on NRB • Now unresponsive. Paramedics state he had a seizure en route.

  24. Talk and Deteriorate • Subdural hematomas • Epidural hematomas • Contusions with edema • Anti-coagulation

  25. Recombinant Factor VIIa

  26. Seizure Prophylaxis • Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) Score < 10 • Cortical contusion • Depressed skull fracture • Subdural hematoma • Epidural hematoma • Intracerebral hematoma • Penetrating head wound • Seizure within 24 h of injury

  27. Acutely Elevated ICP • Hyperventilation • Mannitol • Hypertonic Saline • Barbituates

  28. Hyperventilation

  29. Mannitol

  30. Hypertonic Saline

  31. Barbituates

  32. On the Horizon....

  33. Herniation Syndromes

  34. Kernohan’s Notch Syndrome

  35. Take Home Points • Mild • When to image? • Remember your CT head rules • Return to play guidelines • Moderate/Severe • Hypoxia and hypotension are your enemies • Cooling has not been shown to help • Seizure prophylaxis in penetrating head trauma • Be suspicious for herniation