1 / 29

Caddisflies, butterflies and moths

Caddisflies, butterflies and moths. ( EE , pp. 235-257). Phylogeny of Hexapoda from p. 52. Trichoptera Lepidoptera. Trichoptera. Common name: Caddisflies (7,000 known world species (0.7%)) Derivation: Gk. trichos - hair; pteron - a wing Size: Body length 2-38 mm

Télécharger la présentation

Caddisflies, butterflies and moths

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Caddisflies, butterflies and moths • (EE, pp. 235-257)

  2. Phylogeny of Hexapoda from p. 52 Trichoptera Lepidoptera

  3. Trichoptera Common name: Caddisflies (7,000 known world species (0.7%)) Derivation: Gk. trichos - hair; pteron - a wing Size: Body length 2-38 mm Metamorphosis: Complete (egg, larva, pupa, adult) Distribution: Worldwide, except Antarctica Number of families: 43

  4. Key Features • aquatic larvae (found almost everywhere that there is fresh water); typically in self-constructed cases or shelters • nocturnal and moth-like, with hairs and sometimes scales • legs and antennae slender

  5. Closely related to Lepidoptera (body and wings are covered with hairs, but they lack a proboscis) • adults have weakly developed mouthparts - used to lick up water and nectar (although many adults do not feed) • the front and hind wings are membranous, similarly sized and held over the body in a tent-like manner • in flight, hind wings are coupled to the front wings - using special curved hairs

  6. Larva make elaborate cases (they live in these cases and finally pupate) • cases are made from a variety of materials (e.g. shells, pebbles, sticks) - design tends to be specific for different families • held together with silk secreted from glands in the head and fed out through the labium.

  7. Behavior and development (mostly nocturnal in habit, adults hide in vegetation during the day) • eggs are produced in masses or strings enveloped in a jelly-like substance - dropped into or under water, or laid on overhanging plants • three pairs of five-segmented thoracic legs • at the tip of the abdomen there is a pair of hooked prolegs to anchor the larva in its case • larvae are apneustic (they have no spiracles) • pupation takes place after 5-7 larval stages, inside the silk-sealed larval case or in a specially made pupal case (entire cycle usually takes 1 year)

  8. Some don’t build cases (free-living and tube builders) green sedges (rhyacophilid) trumpet net caddisfly (polycentropodid)

  9. Lepidoptera Common name: Butterflies and moths (165,000 known world species (16.5%)) Derivation: Gk. lepidos - scale; pteron - a wing Size: Wingspan 3-300 mm; mostly under 75 mm Metamorphosis: Complete (egg, larva, pupa, adult) Distribution: Worldwide Number of families: 127

  10. Key Features • abundant and ubiquitous • entire body and both sides of wings usually covered with minute, overlapping scales • mouthparts usually in the form of sucking proboscis (coiled at rest) • some species are significant plant pests • third largest order

  11. Butterflies form a chrysalis (egg to larva to pupa to adult)

  12. Scales are a key feature (minute overlapping scales or hairs cover the entire body surface and wings)

  13. Why are wings so varied? (color and patterns are important for defense and mating) • differences have a genetic basis - but a single gene change can create a large change in pattern (for example in the number of eyespots) • wings are involved in thermoregulation - dark pigments absorb, light pigments reflect (arctic and alpine species have lots of dark pigment)

  14. Butterflies practice mimicry (two main types - batesian and mullerian) • batesian mimicry - palatable (edible) butterflies copy unpalatable butterflies (example to the right) • mullerian mimicry - two unpalatable species show similar warning coloration (example below) heliconiid species danaid species

  15. The Tineoidea (the largest family is the Tineidae - attack fur, wollen, textiles and dry food) • most are scavengers - feeding on fungi, decaying wood, or dry plant and animal material • larvae make a tunnel or web of silk wherever they feed, or construct a portable case from silk & debris Casemaking clothes moth (Tinea pellionella)

  16. The Yponomeutoidea (more than 800 species found throughout the world - tropics and subtropics) • one family is significant - the yponomeutid - it includes many species are vegetable crop pests, especially on cabbage species diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella)

  17. The Tortricoidea (includes the tortricids - which contain more than 5,000 species worldwide) • eat a huge range of plants, recorded feeding on almost 100 different host plants • many species tie or roll leaves together with silk - others bore into fruit, seeds or stems Mexican jumping beans (Cydia saltitans) codling moth (Cydia pomonella)

  18. The Sesioidea (includes the clearwings or clear-winged moths (sesiids)) • often mimic wasps or bees by having large areas of their wings clear of scales • can also have a banded abdomen and a buzzing flight squash vine borer (Melittea cucurbitae) maple callus borer (Synanthedon acerni) peachree borer moth (Synanthdeond exitiosa)

  19. wax moth (Galleria mellonella) European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) The Pyraloidea (the Pyralidae (snout or grass moths) contains more than 25,000 species) • the front of the head has a small snout formed by elongate palps held outstretched • many are pests of crops and stored products

  20. The Geometroidea (the family Geometridae contains more than 20,000 species) • adults are usually nocturnal, and larvae are found wherever there is vegetation • the name means ‘earth measurer’ - it is derived from the characteristic looping motion of the caterpillars • prolegs on 6th and 10th abdominal segments decorated geometrid (Synchlora spp)

  21. The Hesperiidae (the skippers are a group of 3,000 species related to butterflies) • moth-like and heavy-bodied with a wide head • the antennae end characteristically in an elongated club, which comes to a point and is often curved Silver-spotted skipper (Epargyreus clarus) Erichson’s white-skipper (Heliopetes domicella) short-tailed skipper (Zestusa dorus)

  22. fuzzy fringed butterfly (Nathalis iole) monarch (Danaus plexippus) mystery blue (Cupido comyntas) gulf fritillary (Agraulis vanillae) The Papilionoidea (the true butterflies - comprise just under 15,000 species in four families) • often large and spectacularly attractive • swallowtails (Papilionidae) • whites, sulfurs and orange tips (Pieridae) • brush-foot butterflies (Nymphalidae) • blues, copper or hairstreaks (Lycaenidae) parsley butterfly (Papilio polyxenes) fuzzy fringed butterfly (Nathalis iole)

  23. The Lasiocampoidea (includes tent caterpillars) forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma spp)

  24. The Bombycoidea (stout-bodied moths with broad wings) • major families include the following • giant lappet moths (Eupterotid) • silkworms (Bombycidae) • atlas, emperor and royal moths (Saturniidae) regal moth (Citheronia regalis) domestic silkmoth (Bombyx mori) rosy maple moth (Dryocampa rubicunda)

  25. The Bombycoidea (also contains the Sphingidae, which has just over 1,000 species) • hawk moths (sphigids) are large moths with a long proboscis that is curled under the head when not in use • some resemble bees and hummingbirds as they hover at flowers (feeding on nectar) • include the Death’s-head hawk moth death’s head hawk moth (Acherontia atropos) tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) w/ parasitoids

  26. The Noctuoidea (largest lepidopteran superfamily with > 40,000 species) • major families include the following... • tussock moths (Lymantriids) • tiger moths (Arctiidae) • cutworms and armyworms (Noctuidae) gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) Woolly bear caterpillar and moth

  27. The Noctuidae (one of the largest lepidopteran families with > 22,000 species) • caterpillars are called cutworms, armyworms, and loopers - they are among the most devastating agricultural pests cut worms (Agrotis spp.) European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

More Related