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Kingdom Plantae

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  1. Kingdom Plantae

  2. The Big Five Review • How many cells? • What type of cell? • Cell wall or no? If so, what’s it made of? • Nutrition? • Motility?

  3. The Big Five for Plantae • Multicellular • Eukaryotic • Cell walls – cellulose • Autotrophic • Non-motile • Plus…all have roots, stems, leaves, chlorophyll, choloroplasts

  4. PROBLEM Loss of water Needs water in all tissues Will get blown away; needs water No water for swimming gametes Embryos dry out SOLUTION Waxy cuticles on leaves Vascular tissue (tubes) Roots Pollen Seeds Adaptations to Land

  5. Plant Groups • Bryophytes • Mosses, liverworts • Have true RSL

  6. Plant Groups • Pterophytes • Ferns, horsetails • Have vascular tissue

  7. Plant Groups • Gymnosperms • Conifers, evergreens, pine trees • Have seeds (naked ones!)

  8. Plant Groups • Angiosperms • Flowering plants • Covered seeds (in fruits)

  9. Review: 4 Groups • Bryophytes • Have RSL • Nonvascular • No seeds • No flowers • Ex: mosses • Pterophytes • RSL • Vascular • No seeds • No flowers • Ex: Ferns • Gymnosperms • RSL • Vascular • Seeds • No flowers • Ex: Conifers • Angiosperms • RSL • Vascular • Seeds • Flowers • Ex: Rose (all flowers)

  10. Adaptations & Phylogeny Bryophytes Pterophytes Conifers Angiosperms

  11. XYLEM Carries water UP and IN PHLOEM Carries food DOWN and AROUND Vascular Tissue

  12. Vegetative Structures • ROOTS • Soak up waterand minerals from soil • Anchor in place • Root hairs increase surface area for more water absorption

  13. Vegetative Structures • STEMS • Carry substances up and down plant • Provide support for leaves & other parts *may be woody (trees) or herbaceous (green)

  14. Vegetative Structures • MODIFIED STEMS stolons, rhizomes, tubers, bulbs

  15. Vegetative Structures • LEAVES • Make food for the plant (photosynthesis) • Often covered with waxy cuticle (waterproof!) • Main pigment is green (chlorophyll), but may have others

  16. Vegetative Structures • LEAVES DICOT LEAFMONOCOT LEAF (branching veins) (parallel veins)

  17. Vegetative Structures • LEAF PARTS…what is each part for? Cuticle Guard cells Stomata Xylem/phloem Mesophyll Epidermis

  18. Vegetative Structures • MODIFIED LEAVES tendrils, spines, succulents, colored bracts

  19. Transpiration • The loss of water through the stomata is called transpiration • Leaves must balance gas exchange with water loss

  20. Transpiration…Adaptation • In hot, dry areas too much water is lost (transpiration), so alternate methods must be used • Stomata not on the leaves • Stomata only open at night

  21. Quick Write… • Explain how roots, stems and leaves along with vascular tissue function to ensure the survival of a land plant…. (sounds like a good essay type question to me!!!)

  22. Lab - Transpiration • Purpose:What factors increase transpiration in celery? II. Background: Transpiration is the evaporation of water from a plant. The water moves up through xylem, and exits through the stomata. The class will test these conditions: control -sunny - humid - windy - dark III. Hypothesis: Celery will transpire (lose water) the most when it is in the _________ condition.

  23. Lab - Transpiration • IV. Procedure: IV = ________________ DV = _______________ The DV will be measured by… Picture of your group’s set-up:

  24. Lab - Transpiration • V. Data

  25. Lab - Transpiration • VI. Conclusions 1. The ___ had the most transpiration, because... 2. The ___ had the least transpiration, because... 3. The data DOES/DOES NOT support my hypothesis. 4. Two sources of error were _______ and _______. (be descriptive enough that it is clear!)

  26. Reproductive Structures • FLOWERS • Reproductive structures of the plant • Are “showy” if animals needed to help • Are tiny and plain if “nature” helps out (wind, etc)

  27. Reproductive Structures • FLOWER ANATOMY Must know all of these… Petals Sepals – green; cover young bud Pistil (Carpel) – female parts ~ stigma – sticky to catch pollen ~ style – tube to carry pollen down ~ ovary – holds eggs (ova) Stamen – male parts ~ anther – holds mature pollen ~ filament – tube sends pollen up

  28. Name the parts… petal stamen pistil sepal

  29. Reproductive Structures POLLEN have tough, protective walls around the sperm cells (preserved in fossil record) Adapted for various types of transmission: ~ insects…sticky ~ animals…hooks/sticky ~ wind …numerous & light ~ digestion …tough coverings

  30. Reproductive Structures • FRUITS • a mature ovary; contains seeds (embryos)

  31. Fruits

  32. Reproductive Structures • SEED STRUCTURE Seed – the embryo Seed coat – protective covering Radicle – becomes root Endosperm – food for embryo

  33. Plant Responses • Phototropism • Move toward light + • Move away from - • Gravitropism (geotropism) • To ground (roots) • Away from ground (stems) • Thigmotropism • Curls around solids (vines)

  34. Plant Hormones • Auxins • Stimulate growth • Gibberellins • Stimulate growth, especially in flowers & fruits • Abscissic Acid • Stimulates cell death; leaves falling off • Ethylene • Stimulate ripening

  35. The End

  36. MONOCOTS: DICOTS: Two Groups of Angiosperms

  37. Vegetative Structures • ROOTS DICOT ROOTMONOCOT ROOT

  38. Vegetative Structures • STEMS DICOT STEMMONOCOT STEM

  39. Reproductive Structures FERTILIZATION Pollen lands on stigma Pollen tube grows down to ovary Two sperm discharged ~ one fertilizes egg to make the zygote ~ other joins with 2 polar bodies to form endosperm (nutritive tissue for embryo)

  40. Plant Hormones • Auxins • Stimulate growth • Gibberellins • Stimulate growth, especially in flowers & fruits • Abscissic Acid • Stimulates cell death; leaves falling off • Ethylene • Stimulate ripening