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Chapter 16

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Chapter 16

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  1. Chapter 16 War on the Frontier 1860-1875

  2. Can you think of a time in history when different groups became involved in wars over territory? • What about conflicts today? • Think about… • reasons groups become involved in conflicts over land? • The different points of view surrounding these disputes

  3. In the mid 1800’s conflicts over land began in Texas… • After the United States annexed Texas in 1845, many new settlers arrived in the state to live along the frontier. This wave of immigration pushed the frontier line farther west into territory where Native Texans had lived for thousands of years. Tensions would rise as the two groups competed for land.

  4. Two Cultures Clash • As settlers continued to push toward the west, building towns and communities, Native Texans began to feel anger towards them and began to fight back… • For years, federal troops had guarded the frontier against Native Texan attacks. When Texas seceded from the Union in 1861, United States troops were withdrawn. • Some Texans expected Confederate troops to protect the frontier against Native tribes, but the Confederate soldiers were needed to fight in Civil War battles east of the Mississippi River and Texas settlers became easy targets. • Comanche and Kiowa tribes posed the biggest threat to settlers

  5. What was the “frontier”? • For Anglo Americans, the frontierwas the area beyond the limits of settlement. During the Civil War Era in Texas, the frontier was west Texas and was still home of nomadic Native Americans. Raiding frontier settlements was the method of defense for the Natives.

  6. Cynthia Ann and Quanah Parker • One Comanche leader who opposed Anglo settlement on Comanche lands was Quanah Parker. His Anglo mother, Cynthia Ann Parker, was kidnapped by Comanche in 1836. She was raised by Comanche, adopted their culture, and became wife of chief Peta Nocona. • Quanah Parker became one of the most powerful Comanche leaders of the time. • Quanah Parker and Kiowa chiefs fought hard against settlers and troops threatening to force them from their lands.

  7. First Battle of Adobe Walls In 1864, bands of Comanche and Kiowa raided wagon trains that were crossing their land to supply troops. To end the raids, more than 300 troops led by Colonel Kit Carson, a well known frontier scout, set up two cannons at Adobe Walls. Despite being attacked by thousands of Natives, the troops repelled the attacks. The next day, the troops retreated to New Mexico and burned hundreds of Kiowa lodges and winter food storage locations. • Why Significant?... • The Natives were overwhelmed by the loss and signed a peace treaty. • Relations with the Natives and Texan colonists was peaceful until the end of the civil war.

  8. Frontier Conflicts Continue… • When the civil war ended in 1865, federal troops returned to Texas. Many though that troops would go back to defending the frontier, but instead the troops were there to restore federal authority and to aid in reconstruction. This gave Native Americans the chance to fight back. From 1865-1867, Natives took the lives of 162 Texans, wounded 24, captured or kidnapped 43 in raids. The Texas government asked federal authorities to send aid to defend the frontier once again…

  9. The Treaty of Medicine Lodge Creek • U.S. Government promise • Provide food and supplies to the reservation • Natives promise • Natives would move onto the reservation and stop the raids against settlers “I have heard that you intend to set apart a reservation near the mountains. I don’t want to settle; I love to roam over the prairie; I feel free and happy; but when we settle down we get pale and die. . . . A long time ago this land belonged to our fathers; but when I go up to the river I see camps of soldiers on its banks. These soldiers cut down my timber; they kill my buffalo; and when I see that my heart feels like bursting; I feel sorry.” Satanta, speech at the Medicine Lodge Creek Council In 1867, the U.S. government sent agents to arrange a peace treaty. They met with Comanche, Kiowa, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Kiowa-Apache chiefs at Medicine Creek Lodge in Kansas. This treaty established a 3 million acre reservation located in Indian territory (later to be Oklahoma).

  10. Failure of the Treaty The Treaty of Medicine lodge Creek did not bring peace to the Texas frontier. Some natives refused to move onto the reservation because it would restrict their lifestyle. The U.S. government failed to keep it’s promise. The government did not provide enough food or supplies for the reservation. Also, buffalo hunters and outlaws were allowed to enter and hunt on the reservation. Without enough food to eat, some Native left the reservation to hunt and some left to raid settlements…breaking their end of the treaty.

  11. The Buffalo Soldiers In 1868, the U.S. Army again occupied forts built before the Civil War. Soldiers patrolled the frontier to watch for raiding parties of natives. Many of the forts were guarded by African American troops known as buffalo soldiers. Most were former slaves who had joined the army when they were freed. The buffalo soldiers carried out difficult tasks like scouting, mapping, building roads, and patrolling the frontier to protect settlers against raids by natives. Although they played an important role in guarding the frontier, many buffalo soldiers faced discrimination from the settlers they protected. - Name was given to them by Native Americans who respected their bravery and thought their wooly black hair resembled that of a buffalo Why are they called Buffalo Soldiers?

  12. War on the Plains Several attempts at peace on the frontier before 1870 had failed. The U.S. government decided to do away with the peace policy and instead “remove” all Native Americans by forcing them onto reservations. The government also worked with the Texas Rangers to defend the Texas frontier.

  13. The Raid at Salt Creek As a result of the raid at Salt Creek, Sherman enacted a more aggressive policy to remove Natives form the frontier and onto the reservation. This included mass killing of buffalo herds to force native tribes to leave the frontier. also known as the Warren Wagon Train Raid A band of Kiowa led by chief Satanta, and attacked an army wagon train on the same road that William. T. Sherman had just traveled. After hearing about this, Sherman decide to punish the Native Americans. He traveled to the reservation, arrested The leaders of the raid and sent them back to Texas for trial.

  14. The End of the Buffalo “About four miles to the west and south we found an ideal hunters’ camp: plenty of fresh water, good grass, and wood in abundance. Here we made headquarters. . . . We were in a veritable hunters’ paradise. . . . We must have these 3361 hides that this region is to furnish us inside of three months, within a radius of eight miles from this main camp. So at it we went. And Hart . . . started out, and in two hours had killed sixty-three bison.” Buffalo hunter, quoted in The Border and the Buffalo For centuries, buffalo roamed from Canada to South Texas…then the buffalo hunters arrived. Americans soon discovered that buffalo hide could be made into leather just as easy as cattle and it was just as profitable, so hunters flocked to the frontier and Plains. Some government officials believed that if the primary food source of these nomadic tribes was gone, they would be forced to move to the reservation. By the end of the 1800’s the population of buffalo had shrank from the millions to nearly extinct!

  15. The Red River War(Second Adobe Walls battle & Palo Duro Canyon battle) • Native Americans fought back against the killing of the buffalo, which Anglo’s were hunting even on the reservations. • On June 27, 1874, Quanah Parker led more than 700 Comanches and Kiowa into battle against a camp of buffalo hunters at the old Adobe Walls trading post. (2nd Battle of Adobe Walls) The hunters were outnumbered, but their long range rifles allowed them to fend off the attacking Natives. Angered, the tribes increased their raids on settlers. • General Sheridan, who supervised Reconstruction in Texas, came up with a plan to end Native resistance. He sent columns of troops in 5 directions to trap the Natives in their winter camps in Palo Duro Canyon. They would be forced to surrender or be killed. • Battles continued for months, troops burned Native villages, burned food supplies, and killed natives horses.

  16. The Beginning of the End… • The losses were disastrous for the Comanche and Kiowa • This put an end to the raids and the Native way of life. They were forced onto the reservation and the destruction of the buffalo population kept them on the reservations…dependent on government agents for food. • Years later, the government would again break their promise. Most of the reservation land was opened up to settlers. This resulted in the break-up of the Kiowa-Comanche and other tribes.

  17. Main Ideas/Review • Because few troops guarded the frontier line in Texas, more conflicts erupted between Native tribes and Texas settlers • Although several attempts were made to establish peace, conflicts between Native Americans and Texas settlers continued along the frontier • Due to an aggressive military policy by the army and increased hunting of buffalo, most Native Americans were forced to live on reservations…the end of the frontier conflicts marked the passing of a way of life for many Native Americans and the further expansion westward by Anglos.