190 likes | 502 Vues
The multipurpose system – What we want to obtain By Ann Christin Bøeng Statistics Norway Outline for the presentation Vision behind the multipurpose system What kind of tables do we need The importance of international harmonized systems Challenges Proposal for tables
E N D
The multipurpose system – What we want to obtain By Ann Christin Bøeng Statistics Norway
Outline for the presentation • Vision behind the multipurpose system • What kind of tables do we need • The importance of international harmonized systems • Challenges • Proposal for tables
The multipurpose system • In order to get a consistent picture of energy supply and use by sector in the society, it is useful to compile all relevant data in one system and present it in one overall table. This is what we call “Energy supply and use” in this context. • Input in the system is statistics for all energy carriers and in all use for all economic activities. • The input-statistics often contain more details than what is necessary for ESU, and can serve other specific needs. • With multipurpose system, we mean all energy statistics , gathered in a system that ”communicates”.
Purpose with one joint system • Different sources often give different results. Such as energy in National accounts and Energy account • A vision behind a joint system is to coordinate all data collection and statistics in a country. • The ideal situation is that data only are collected once, both nationally and internationally. • These data should be used for all purposes, for calculation of emissions, energy balances, international reporting, national accounts etc. • To obtain this, we should promote mechanism for data sharing and coordination of data sources.
The technical solution • Data should be collected by one institution (NSO) and stored in a data base structure. The important is to link with meta data, make them accessible and avoid inconsistency. This will reduce response burden. • What should be collected? • In general, we need supply and transformation of all energy carriers. Further how energy is used in all sectors in economic units by industry and households + exports. • Several specific needs can arise when data are used • Important to know the user needs in order to collect the right data.
Which energy carriers should be included • What is energy, and how should different energy carriers be defined or classified? • Traditional commercial energy sources, as oil, electricity, gas is certainly energy • Also fuel wood, solar energy etc., but this is partly non-commercial, and more difficult to survey. • Waste or rape seed oil is not energy, but can be used in production of district heating or biofuels and is therefore a part of the energy flow. • Lubricants, bitumen and paraffin waxes are oil products, but not used as energy, only as raw materials.
Importance of standardized methods • National / international consistency in methods, conversion factors etc is equal important as consistency in data sources • Energy is input in all activities, and the energy statistics should fit into other statistics, either as intermediate input, for emission calculation or for compiling indicators. • Indicators is a tool to study trends and factors behind the growth in energy consumption, as energy per value added. • It is easier to combine different data sets if they follow standard classifications. • To summarize; There is a need for well defined and uniform methods, principles and classifications of industries and energy products in order to have a clear transparent, international comparable picture of the energy situation.
Concepts and confusion in total systems • However, this is not how the real situation is. • Both product definitions, classifications and methods varies in smaller or larger degree between countries, organizations and between different statistics. • UN’s survey show that more than the half of all countries energy balance follows a national format, not international recommendations • That is why we cannot directly compare the energy balance that is compiled in different countries • Further, it is a lot of confusion related to the energy accounts. What is it, and what should it contain?
Some principles for overall energy supply and use tables • Should it strict follow the territorial principle, that means energy flow within the country. • Or should it define the economy according to the resident principle (as in the National Accounts) • Since we cannot provide all information in one single table, both tables, including bridge tables could be useful • The ESU-system should contain as detailed data as possible, both distributed on activity and purpose • Then we need as set of programs that can generate different kind of tables, according to different principles.
Link between the two principles Energy used by foreigners in Norway Energy used by Norwegian tourists, transport trades, fishing embassies, defence abroad Joint data: Energy consumption of Norwegians in Norway Territorial principle Residential principle
Energy for transport and raw materials Energy used for transport; gasoline diesel, marine gas oils, electricity etc Energy by purpose National accounts approach Transport: Energy used for transport; gasoline diesel, marine gas oils, electricity etc Raw materials, added up with other energy consumption in EA. Separate row in EB
The ideal situation is a two-way-communication. Basic statistics is the main input in ESU, but controls and consistency cheques in the ESU may lead to corrections in the basic statistics. Similar can use of energy data in emission calculations or for international reporting lead to corrections in the ESU database. It should be consistency in energy data in NA and EA, and methods and sources should be coordinated. Basic statistics Emission statistics National Accounts Energy supply and use database International reporting
Challenges • Many countries have good data on the supply side, but lack reliable or detailed consumption data • The quality and extent of input data constraints the ESU-system. That is why we also need a focus on the underlying statistics, and carry out efforts to improve this. • Certain user groups and energy commodities more challenging than other. As the service sector and division between domestic and foreign transport • Large uncertainty about energy used in international transport or in transit. • In general all data for energy used abroad is uncertain
Non-commercial energy, as biomass and solar energy. • Energy from ambient air, earth etc, and utilized in heat pumps. This is “invisible” in the energy statistics. • How to balance and harmonize results from different data sources, and obtain logical connections and consistency. • Logical controls should be a part of the technical data base solution; • Such as the relationship between input and output of energy within energy producing industries, and consistency among different data sources • Economic unit. Ideally, all data should be collected in the same economic unit, for each unit in the company.
Further challenges • The available “input”-data do not always follow standards. • Data are missing. We often have to trust estimates, or forecast based on old surveys. • Conversion factors: We need to convert energy from the the natural unit, to a common unit in order to get totals. • Factors are often uncertain, and vary among countries. A question is; Should they vary or be standardized? • Different climate and composition of energy sources with high and low thermal efficiency makes it difficult to compare different countries.
Proposal for tables from a ESU-system • Overall tables that follow the territorial principle and resident principle respectively. Tables presented in several units, both energy’s natural unit and joint energy unit. • Energy distributed on both purpose and activity. • The system must support compilation of energy indicators, and data needs for Namea tables and SEEA. • Climatic corrected energy consumption • Useful energy- corrected for the efficiency coefficient in the energy commodities • Tables that shows division on renewable and non-renewable energy- Preferably time series • For emission purposes – The basic data in the total system is the foundation, not the tables.
To summarize • We want to obtain a lot, but there are also certain problems and many questions – but fewer answers. • My point is to highlight goals that we should work towards and the challenges, to get more focus on it, and maybe ideas for solutions. • Thanks for your attention.