Pricing Carbon: Carbon Emission Trading Potential in South Africa Proposed Research Papers
Research Papers • Carbon tax versus emissions trading • Emission trading scheme design • Use of carbon revenue • International carbon reduction policies • Trading scheme costs and administration • Carbon Offsets • Consultation and Policy Context • Summary: A South African emissions trading scheme?
Research Papers • Carbon tax versus emissions trading • Review of carbon taxation • Comparison of tax versus trading • Administrative implications • Efficiency implications • Environmental implications • South African policy considerations • Tax incidence • Market structure • Emission trading scheme design • Comparison of emission trading scheme design and design elements • Key design elements and comparisons (allocations, trading rules..) • Implications for South Africa • Use of carbon revenue • Scale of revenue • Use of revenue and fiscal considerations • Hypothecation and revenue recycling • Mitigating impacts on households and businesses • South African policy considerations
Research Papers • International carbon reduction policies • Cross country comparison of strategies • Current inter-linkages of schemes • Merits of tax vs. trading with regards to future links • Future global carbon market prospects • Trading scheme costs and administration • Costs estimates of trading schemes • Monitoring and enforcement requirements • Trading and trading platform requirements • Comparison with other policy options • Legal requirements • Capacity requirements • Carbon Offsets • Review of the voluntary markets in relation to trading schemes • Policy issues related to the use of offsets and the cdm • Consideration of the level to which offsets could be used in SA Africa
Research Papers • Consultation and Policy Context • Current South African policies and the relationship of these to a trading scheme • Summary of stakeholder views and perceptions • Relationship of a domestic scheme to the CDM and to SA’s position in the global climate change negotiations • Will require structured consultation or at least interviews with the top 20 emitters and key departments. • Possibly with the ERC • Summary: A South African emissions trading scheme?
Cross-Cutting Considerations • Distributional implications • consumers • producers • revenue use and mitigating impacts • Market Structure • implications of SA’s specific market structure for both ET and taxation • Coverage • addressing energy intensive sectors • addressing competitiveness • coverage of ‘distributed’ emissions – transport, households, agriculture, waste • Timing • when should approach be initiated • stability and certainty • relationship to large fixed investments