BIOLOCH 6th month MeetingBIO-mimetic structures for LOComotion in the Human body 8-9 November 2002 Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Polo Sant’Anna Valdera, Pontedera (PI), Italy
Agenda of the Meeting (1/2) Friday, November 8, 2002 14.30 – 15.00 Welcome and description of the Meeting Objectives (Coordinator) Main achievements, Deliverable preparation, Administrative issues (new role of UoT, DUP, Leuwen meeting, etc) 15.00 – 16.30 Review and analysis of the biological locomotion systems and strategies useful for the design of the biomimetic locomotion unit (D1) The aim of this discussion will be to identify a taxonomy for locomotion of biological creatures with a preference for no-swimming and no-flying creatures. Three applications will be approached (endo-luminal surgery, inspection, rescue microrobotics) with a strong preference for the medical field. A deep analysis of Locomotion principles, Adhesion principles and Control principles should be presented. This analysis will be guided by SSSA at the beginning. Contributions and interventions will be asked to the partners for the following points:Description/characterization of locomotion mechanisms of biological structures (BATH), Control mechanisms of the biological creatures for locomotion (FORTH), Environment analysis and replication (UoT and UoP) 16.30 – 16.45 Coffee Break 16.45 – 18.30 Review and analysis of the biological locomotion systems and strategies useful for the design of the biomimetic locomotion unit (D1) – continuing 18.30 – 19.00 Conclusion of the first day (scientific part) 19.00 – 19.30 Discussion of administrative and contractual issues 20.00 Social Dinner in a local restaurant
All Partners are kindly requested to give SSSA the presentation material at the end of the meeting Agenda of the Meeting (2/2) Saturday, November 9, 2002 09.00 – 09.15 Presentation of the second day objective (Project Coordinator) 09.15 – 11.00 Enabling technologies for the design and fabrication of the systems identified on the first day The aim of the second day is to identify which technologies, which control strategies, which design method can be exploited to implement the “preferred” biomimetic units in a concrete way. Main contributions are expected by SSSA, UoP, FORTH. 11.00 – 11.15 Coffee Break 11.15 – 12.30 Enabling technologies for the design and fabrication of the systems identified on the first day - continuing. Final Discussion 12.30 – 12.45 Decision for the next meetings and end of the meeting
BIOLOCH Team Presentation Some new faces from: SSSA UoB UoT FORTH UoP
Taxonomy of locomotion mechanisms and matching with enabling technologies The Work Flow and the Meeting Output UoB FORTH UoP SSSA UT Prototypes
From models to applications / from applications to models? Paddleworm ………… Locomotion models Octopus ……… Adhesion models Enabling Technologies Underground locomotion Applications Endoscopy
00 06 12 18 24 30 WorkPackage Overview: Where we are 36 WP0 Project Management Study of locomotion mechanisms of lower animal forms Modelling and design of artificial structures which replicate biological mechanisms Enabling technologies and principles for fabricating biomimetic components Understanding and replicating biological perception of lower animal forms Control strategy and control implementation Fabrication of prototypes of biomimetic locomotion machines Experiments on prototypes of biomimetic locomotion machines Dissemination and Implementation WP1 WP2 WP3 WP4 WP5 WP6 WP7 WP8
00 06 12 18 24 30 M1: Selection and design of the preferred biomimetic locomotion principle to be implemented M2: Selection and design of the perception-reaction strategy to be implemented M3: Fabrication of the biomimetic locomotion prototype (or BLU) M4: Testing of the biomimetic locomotion prototype and overall validation Where we are 36 WP0 WP1 WP2 WP3 WP4 WP5 WP6 WP7 WP8
Administrative and Scientific accomplishments • Preparation of deliverables: DUP, Project Presentation and D1 (with November 15) • Leuven Meeting (December 3) • UoT UoT + IHCI at Steinbeis University (with Novineon Healthcare technology as subcontract) • Consortium Agreement
IST – 2001 - 34181BIOLOCHBIO-mimetic structures for LOComotion in the Human body D0 Project Presentation Submitted to Project Officer November 3, 2002
Long-Term Objectives: to understand motion and perception systems of lower animal forms and to design and fabricate bio-inspired mini- and micro-machines able to navigate in the human body. Middle-Term Objectives: Study on the biomechanics of locomotion of worms, insects and parasites; on the biological perception-reaction mechanisms which control their locomotion and on the interaction between biological and artificial structures attaching to the gut tissue; Technological innovation, by setting up biologically inspired design paradigms and by implementing bio-mimetic designs via hybrid manufacturing technologies; Fabrication and testing of smart biomechatronic devices for biomedical applications. Milestone #1: Selection and design of the preferred biomimetic locomotion principle to be implemented Milestone #2: Selection and design of the perception-reaction strategy to be implemented Milestone #3: Fabrication of the biomimetic locomotion prototype (or BLU) Milestone #4: Testing of the biomimetic locomotion prototype and overall validation IST-2001-34181 - BIOLOCH BIO-mimetic structures for LOComotion in the Human body • D0 Project Presentation
IST-2001-34181 - BIOLOCH BIO-mimetic structures for LOComotion in the Human body List of Principal Investigators of BIOLOCH Project Co-ordinator: Prof. Paolo Dario Project Manager: Dr. Arianna Menciassi Technical Team Co-ordinators SSSA: Prof. Paolo Dario UBAH Mech Eng : Prof. Julian Vincent UniPi: Prof. Danilo De Rossi FORTH : Dr. Dimitris Tsakiris UoT : Prof. Marc Schurr • Starting date: May 1, 2002 • End date: April 30, 2005 • Project Duration: 36 months • Funding: • Total costs: €1.654.570 • Community Funding: €1.503.900 • Partners: • Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna (SSSA) - Pisa (I) – Co-ordinator • University of Bath, Department of Mechanical Engineering (UBAH Mech Eng) – United Kingdom • Centro "E. Piaggio", Faculty of Engineering, University of Pisa (UniPi) - Italy • FORTH - Foundation for Research and Technology – Hellas (FORTH) - Greece • University of Tuebingen, Section for minimally invasive surgery (UoT) - Germany Project Coordinator: Prof. Paolo Dario CRIM Lab - Scuola Superiore S. AnnaPiazza Martiri della Libertà, 33 56127 PISA (ITALY) Tel. +39-050-883400 / +39-050-883401Fax. +39-050-883402e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org site: http://www-crim.sssup.it • D0 Project Presentation
Administrative accomplishments Reply from Dr. Lacombe concerning the new role of UoT: As you are adding a new partner, the only way is via a contract amendment. In order to do this we need 1) a letter from the coordinator explaining the situation and asking for an amendment to the contract. 2) a new version of the CPFs with the new partner and the new budget (you can send them via e-mail + "original signatures" only by post) 3) an update of Annex 1 incorporating the changes.
Agenda of the Meeting (1/2) Friday, November 8, 2002 15.00 – 16.30 Review and analysis of the biological locomotion systems and strategies useful for the design of the biomimetic locomotion unit (D1) 16.30 – 16.45 Coffee Break 16.45 – 18.30 Review and analysis of the biological locomotion systems and strategies useful for the design of the biomimetic locomotion unit (D1) – continuing 18.30 – 19.00 Conclusion of the first day (scientific part)
Review and analysis of the biological locomotion systems and strategies useful for the design of the biomimetic locomotion unit
The Approach • We have essentially considered biological locomotion systems which are exploited for propulsion in “solid” or “semisolid” environments, thus excluding fin-based or wing-based systems. • For this reason, the review can be divided in “Systems for adhesion” and “Systems for locomotion/propulsion”. In this presentation, locomotion often indicates the displacement of “adhesive” contact points. • After the analysis of the mechanics of adhesion and locomotion a review of the control strategies for some selected propulsion mechanisms should be considered.
Adhesion Systems 1/2 Suction Suction occurs when an animal creates a partial vacuum over some area of the substrate – body interface. It is limited by the magnitude of the air – pressure differential produced. Marc Schurr: Another system for adhering on biological structures is grasping WE CAN CALL 3D ADHESION (MECHANICAL CLAMPING or holding for locomotion) Graspinginterlocking? Friction Friction is the force that opposes motion between two surfaces in contact. Frictional forces depend on a normal force holding the surfaces together.
Adhesion Systems 2/2 Adhesion by biological glue Gluing involves a cement spread between two surfaces. The principle combines adhesion (the intermolecular forces between two dissimilar materials) and cohesion (the intermolecular forces among identical molecules) Dimitris: Adhesion by sucking is passive. Sucker does not allow manipulation Adhesion by van der Walls interactions Van der Waals forces are any of the non – covalent attractive or repulsive forces acting upon neutral atoms or molecules.
Suction 1/3 Taenia Solium Parasite of the human gut, Taenia Solium is characterized by a clubbed head (Scolex), with four muscular suckers and several row of hooks located above a reversing Rostellum; the suckers and the hooks fix the Scolex to the intestinal wall
Suction 2/3 Bats Disk–like structures on the wrists and ankles of four species of bats are presumed to give these animals the ability to grip to smooth surfaces such as the waxy cuticles of furled leaves
Suction 3/3 • Octopods • An octopus uses a very efficient device to generate a powerful adhesive force; • it can grip a remarkable range of objects, even if they are smaller than the suckers
Friction 1/3 Primates Frictional properties of skin, dependent on the water content and on the amount of sebum secretion, enables small primates to cling large vertical supports
Friction 2/3 Snakes The double – ridge microfibrillar geometry of snake scales provides ideal conditions for sliding in a forward direction with minimum adhesive forces
Friction 3/3 • Plants • Plant tissue can replicate a surface profile by growing into surface depressions; • seeds of many plants possess hooking devices and use animals to disperse themselves some distance from the parent plant; • the hooks contact animal hairs, interlock and they are transported by the animals
Adhesion by biological glue 1/3 Transitory adhesion of soft – bodied invertebrates Many animals can move along the substrate thanks to the secretion of a viscous film, which they leave behind as they move; differences in the adhesive and frictional properties of different parts of the foot are caused by the mechanical properties of pedal mucus at different velocities
Adhesion by biological glue 2/3 Byssus adhesion in molluscs The byssus is an extracellular structure consisting of a thread attached to the animal at one end and to a substrate at the other; the distal ends of the threads are attached to oval adhesive plaques which adheres to the substrate by secreting mucosubstance and polyphenolic protein
Adhesion by biological glue 3/3 Ants’ Arolium Arolium is a smooth pad located between the claws; its adhesion to flat surfaces is mediated by a thin liquid film between the Arolium and the surface, while its adhesion to rough surface happens by using the claws
Adhesion by van der Walls interactions 1/2 Cell adhesion Multicellular organisms consist of many cells, which adhere to each other by chemical bonds and van der Waals interactions
Adhesion by van der Walls interactions 2/2 • Lizard • On the underside of the feet there are microscopic bristles (about 90 μm long and 10 μm wide); • at the distal ends of the bristles there are very small terminal sub–division (of the order of 0.1 μm – 0.5 μm); • Geckos use electrical forces to attach to surfaces; • These forces are due to the interactions of electrons in surface atoms and molecules
Comparative table DIMITRIS: We should QUATIFY the smoothness and roughness on the basis of a dimensional analysis Marc: We should add grasping at least for the GI tract Numbers indicate a relative scale between 1 and 5, a high number means a good performance
Locomotion systems • Locomotion systems observed in lower animal forms • Pedal • Peristaltic • Contract-anchor-extend • Serpentine • Rectilinear • Concertina • Sidewinding • Polypedal
Pedal locomotion 1/2 slow continuing gliding typical of aquatic locomotion in invertebrates such as flatworms, some cnidarians, and gastropods
Pedal locomotion 2/2 • Propulsion is generated by the passage of contraction waves through the ventral musculature, which is in contact with the bottom surface; • the pedal contraction waves are either direct or retrograde; • when a direct wave reaches a muscle, the muscle contracts and lifts a small part of the body; • the body is carried forward and set down anterior to its original position.
Peristaltic locomotion • Propulsion is generated by the alternation of longitudinal and circular muscle contraction waves flowing from the head to the tail; • the sites of longitudinal contraction are the anchor points; • body extension is by circular contraction. Peristaltic locomotion is used by soft-bodied invertebrates such as earthworms to penetrate soil or mud
Contract-anchor-extend locomotion • Foot is extended by contraction of the transverse muscles; • siphons are closed; • adductor muscle of the shell contracts; blood is forced into the tip of the foot and causes it to dilate. Contract-anchor-extend locomotion is used by bivalve molluscs, such as clams in acquatic locomotion along bottom surfaces With the tip acting as an anchor, the longitudinal muscles then contract, pulling the body down to the anchored foot
The body is thrown into a series of sinus curves; • when a snake starts to move, the entire body moves, and all parts follow the same path as the head. • propulsion is by a simultaneous lateral thrust in all segments of the body in contact with solid projections • not effective on flat or not rigid frictional surfaces Serpentine locomotion Serpentine locomotion is typical of snakes, legless lizards, worm lizard and caecilians
each ventral scale is moved by two pairs of muscles attached to ribs • one pair of muscles is inclined posterior at an angle; the other is inclined anterior at an angle • as contraction waves move rearward from the head the anterior oblique muscles of a scale contract first and lift the scale upward and forward. When the posterior oblique muscles contract, the scale is pulled rearward, but its edge anchors it, and the body is pulled forward Rectilinear locomotion scale muscles • This sequence is repeated by all segments as the contraction wave passes posteriorly, and, as a series of contraction waves follow one another, the body slowly inches forward; • effective on flat surface. Used for slow motion, stalking Rectilinear locomotion is typical of giant snake, fossorial vertebrates
Used where there is not enough frictional resistance along the locomotor surface for serpentine locomotion; • After the body is thrown into a series of tight, sinuous loops, forming a frictional anchor, the head slowly extends forward until the body is nearly straight or begins to slide; • The anterior end forms a small series of loops and, with this anchor, pulls the posterior regions forward, after which the sequence of movements is repeated. Concertina locomotion Graham: This locomotion is included in a 57 page patent Concertina locomotion is typical of snakes
used when the locomotor surface fails to provide a rigid frictional base, is a specific adaptation for crawling over friable sandy soils; • the body moves through a series of sinuous curves, but the track made by the snake is a set of parallel lines that are roughly perpendicular to the axis of movement; • only two parts of the body touch the ground at any instant; the rest of the body is held off the ground Sidewinding locomotion Sidewalking locomotion is typical of snakes
the body is raised above the ground and moved forward by the legs • the legs provide support as well as propulsion • the sequences of their movements must be adjusted to maintain the body’s centre of gravity within a zone of support • many legs increase stability but reduce the maximum speed of locomotion Polypedal terrestrial locomotion Rapid surface locomotion developed by arthropods (e.g., insects, spiders, and crustaceans) and vertebrates
Comparison table of different locomotion systems Thomas: There is a difference with the D1. Add speed! Marc: Among the criteria, we should add the space requirement/constraints Relative scale between 1 and 5; higher number indicates better performance
Possible applications • medical • inspection robotics • rescue robotics While Bioloch efforts will mainly be driven to medical application, locomotion design solutions can be applied to other fields.
Possible follow-ups for design solutions and modules Possible applications • medical inspection robotics rescue robotics • endo-luminal surgery • gastroscopy • foetal surgery • gynaecological inspection • … While Bioloch efforts will mainly be driven to medical application, locomotion design solutions can be applied to other fields.
Possible applications Inspection Robotics Inspection Robots allow the operator to view and diagnose problems in a wide variety of industries and hazardous situations, from a remote location.