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Role of management and leadership

Role of management and leadership

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Role of management and leadership

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  1. Role of management and leadership

  2. Management • Writers who consider the functions performed by management • Frederick Taylor • Henri Fayol • Peter Drucker • Henry Mintzberg

  3. Federick Taylor • Early 20th century • Management of work task • Rationality  scientific principles to work management  Most efficient way of working • Scientific management  • Efficiency • Standardization • Discipline

  4. Principle of division between managerial and work roles • Principle of standardization and specialization • Principle of division of labor and efficiency • These principles still remain significant

  5. Taylor’s work  preceded the adoption of mass production techniques • Little systematic research • Workers believed that increasing in productivity  job losses  took advantage of poor management controls to slow down productivity

  6. Many modern orgs (with similar outputs with continuous process) still adopt Taylor-like principles to increase productivity • Taylor’s work is now taken for granted and rejected by a more ‘human’ or ‘social’ considerations

  7. Henri Fayol • Did not invent the concept of management • BUT • He distinguish management from other organizational activity • He outlined the prime functions of a manager • Normative and prescriptive model • Indicates how managers ‘should’ conduct their activity (in order to achieve efficiency • ‘Functions of management’

  8. Functions of management • Plan and forecast  prepare a series of actions to enable the organization to meet its objectives in the future • Organize  to fulfill the administrative principles embraced by Fayol • Coordinate  to ensure that resources, actions and outputs are coordinated to achieve desire outcomes • Command  to give direction to employees • Control  to ensure that activities are in accordance with the plan/ that orders are followed/ that principles of management applied

  9. Fayol’s 14 principles of management

  10. Challenged by modern development of organizations • Unity of command vs matrix organization • Fayol’s principles vs Teamworking, flatter hierarchies, professional control, flexible working

  11. Peter Drucker • Describe and comment upon what manager ‘do’ • Prescriptive analysis of the management role • Three broad tasks of managers • Satisfying the goals or mission f the organization • Enabling the worker to achieve and focus on productivity • Managing social responsibilities • Managers are required to 1) set objectives 2) organize 3) motivate and communicate 4) measure and develop people

  12. Drucker vs previous works • More concern about human and interpersonal issues • Recognize importance of communications and social concerns

  13. Henry Mintzberg • Detailed observations of what managers actually did (not prescriptive; myths of modern management) • In reality  managers did not spend most of their time planning, organizing, coordinating, commanding and controlling

  14. 10 roles that managers do

  15. Mintzberg’s sequence of activity in the pursuit of objectives

  16. Interpersonal  managers internally build relationships with employees and network with other depts. • Information  collect info and act as spokesperson for the group  develop stable relationships  quality information • Decisional  decision making, setting objectives, resource allocation

  17. Typical manager’s day • Frequent interruptions for brief conversation by phone, in person, email  to keep managers informed • Rosabeth Moss, Tom Peter, Henry Mintzberg • Focus on strategic perspective on management • Importance of mission and vision • Customer oriented values • Paint a picture of the conditions necessary for organizational success

  18. Leadership and management • Manager  performs functions in orgs and hold a particular, formal, title and/or fulfill a role • Marketing manager  marketing of a product • Personnel manager  recruitment and selection of staff • Have a title, a role, a series of functions to perform, management of subordinates, management of financial resource • Planning, organizing, coordinating, commanding, controlling the activities of staff

  19. Leaders  aim to influence and guide others into pursuing particular objectives or visions of the future and to stimulate them into wanting to follow • Demonstrates the power of one individual over others • Leadership is not necessarily related to hierarchical position (authority) as managers tend to be  informal leaders • Leadership = dynamic activity concerning more with changing attitudes, inspiration, emotional input than management

  20. Managers may show leadership qualities on particular occasions • Mintzberg includes the leader role as one of his ten roles of management • Handy (1993), Watson (1983), Kotter (1990)  leadership is merely part of the broader role of management

  21. Leadership • General definition (Lundstedt 1965)  ‘leadership involves influencing the behavior of others in any group or organization, setting goals, formulating paths to those goals, and creating social norms in the group’

  22. Definition of leadership  two common elements • Group phenomenon  2 or more people must be involved • Influence process

  23. Influence  flow from leaders to followers  Followers grant the leadership role to leader  leaders rallying people together and motivating them to achieve some common goals

  24. Leader as Symbol  move the group toward set goals in a definite manner • The Uniqueness of leadership roles • The achievement of Leadership Positions • Influence, Power, & Authority in leadership

  25. Influence Tactics (Yukl 1994) • Rational Persuasion • Inspirational Appeals • Consultation • Ingratiation • Personal Appeals • Exchange • Coalition Tactics • Legitimating Tactics • Pressure

  26. Authority  rational basis of power • Rational side of org  what an org should do according to the official, formal dictates of org • Political side of organization  what organizations actually do

  27. Authority • **the rationally based formal right to make decisions and influence behavior to implement decisions based on formal organizational relationships** • 2 ‘subrights’ The right to decide • The right to issue appropriate implementing instructions or directions • Rights are determined by ‘obligation’ • Obligation (responsibility) determine the nature of the right (authority)  balanced

  28. Authority = a right determined by an obligation • ‘Authority is solely associated with formal org, with formal sanction or approval from society’

  29. Forms of authority • Managerial authority • Staff authority • Situational authority • Operative authority

  30. Managerial Authority • Managers are responsible for acquiring, deploying, & controlling resources needed to accomplish objectives • Rights to choose among alternatives • The right to enforce those choices based on official position • Principle of parity of authority and responsibility Balance between responsibility & authority

  31. Staff Authority • Suggestions & recommendations about the solutions to problems, procedure, or improvements • Right to recommend • Right to suggest • Right to advise • Right to attempt to exert influence to gain acceptance for ideas • Ex. TQM, suggestion boxes, employee empowerment, decentralizing org.

  32. Situational Authority • Hybrid authority • Contains both managerial and staff authority • Delegated by managers to a staff expert

  33. Operative Authority • All members have this authority •  make certain decisions about how, in what order, which tools they carry out their tasks •  right to work without undue supervision

  34. Power • “the ability to impose one’s will on others’ • “ the ability of one person to affect the behavior of someone else in a desired way” • Based on factors such as knowledge, authority, information, personality, resource control

  35. Authority  simple power associated with formal organization • Power  influence that does not necessarily depend on formal organizational recognition • Example

  36. Two Perspectives on Power • The French and Raven Power Typology individual bases of power • Dependency, Critical Contingencies, and Power  how individuals, groups, or departments gain power through dependency relationships

  37. French & Raven Power Typology • Sources & potency of power in org • Rational/legal power • Reward Power • Coercive power • Referent power • Charismatic power • Expert power

  38. Dependency, Critical Contingencies, and Power • Power through control of resources • Power through solving critical or strategic contingencies • Level of substitutability • Power and location in the org • Power and position in the org

  39. How to assess power ? • Determine by sources or origin of power  judgment about how much of particular power a person/department possesses • Determine by consequences of decisions made by various actors • Determine by power symbols  larger office, luxurious furniture, more expensive company cars • Representational indicators of power  memberships on influential boards or committees

  40. Three levels of leadership • Executive • Managerial • Supervisory • Informal leadership • Three major theories • Leadership & organization theory

  41. Executives •  establish bureau’s structure (including positions filled by managers and supervisors •  maintain general view of the bureau and its place within political envi •  Interpret political statements of intentions (unclear & contradictory) into rational goals & policies •  Create environment that encourage goal achievement •  close attention to org environment (take advantage of opportunity & protect org from threats

  42. manager •  depend on rules & regulations that define their power over others •  interpret org goals (set by executives) in concrete manner (into structure, procedure, tasks •  often pulled by superiors & subordinates •  focus on how org can be best organized to achieve the overall goals established by executives

  43. Supervisor •  focus on motivation, productivity, interpersonal relations •  work directly with production process •  protect subordinates from political pressure

  44. Informal leadership •  have no official leadership positions •  need to understand informal leadership phenomenon along with formal one

  45. Executive leadership • Most important  influence  skillful playing of political game  power • “Administrative conservators” • Preserve institution • Improve institution • “what is political climate?” • “what is the resource base?” • “what is the potential for mobilizing support for the program?”

  46. The Managers • “in the middle” • Traits (Stogdill 1981) • Capacity intelligence, alertness, verbal facility, originality, judgment • Achievement scholarship, knowledge • Responsibilitydependability, initiative, persistence, aggressiveness, self-confidence • Participation activity, sociability, cooperation, adaptability, humor • Status Socioeconomic position, popularity • Situation mental level, status, skills, needs and interests of followers, objectives to be achieved

  47. The Supervisors • “getting the work done” • Three major focuses • Production • Maintenance of individual morale • Maintenance of group cohesiveness

  48. Supervisory behavior (Bass 1990) • Consideration  “extent to which a leader shows concern for the welfare of the other members of the group, appreciation of good work, stress importance of job satisfaction” • Initiation of structure  “extent to which a leader initiates activities in the group, organizes it, & defines the way work is to be done”

  49. Leadership: School of thought • Three broad schools • Trait Theories: • 20th century  focus on personal characteristics of leaders • Partial explanation/superficial perspective on leadership issues • Behavioral theories • Focus on behaviors of leaders including styles of leadership • Non-context specific • Situational theories • Focus on the leader in the context or situation in which he/she leads • Add richness to the study of leadership

  50. Trait Theories • Individual’s ability to lead • social background, intelligence, other personality features • Bennis and Nanus (1985)  relationship bt leadership effectiveness and the traits (logical thinking, persistence, empowerment, self-control)