Adaptations How are organisms adapted to their environment?
Adaptations for getting food & water • What is an adaptation? • Adapted- made fit to live under certain conditions. • How do animals survive in the wild? • They adapt by hunting and catching animals that they eat. • They have many things that help them adapt: body parts, body coverings, camouflage, mimicry, and defense mechanisms. • To view some animal adaptations: http://encarta.msn.com/media_461538251_761558664_-1_1/Dolphin_Surfacing_for_Air.html
Body Parts Male baboon- has sharp teeth for cutting, eating, and fighting. African elephant- has tusksand trunkfor breaking branches and using in defense. Shark- razor sharp teeth and fins to swim fast when attacking or being attacked. What are some other body parts that help animals survive?
Birds: Body Parts How are birds adapted to catch and eat food? Woodpecker- hammers its sharp beak into a tree to find insects. Cardinal-short, thick beak helps break open seeds. Spoonbill- wide beak to catch fish and insects in a pond.
Body Parts: Birds Pelican- uses its beak to catch fish. Hummingbird- has a long, thin beak that reaches deep into flowers to get nectar. Website: http://encarta.msn.com/media_461518264/Adaptations_in_Bird_Beaks.html
Hawk The hawk is also adapted to catch and eat animals. strong wings sharp eyesight sharp claws strong hooked beak
Body Coverings Turtle: hard shell for protection, pulls feet, head, and tail in the hard shell. Porcupine: sharp quills- raises and rattles them in order to make itself look bigger. They also make a shrill noise that scares off would-be attackers. Armadillo: true bone shell- rolls itself into a ball to protect itself from predators.
Camouflage Camouflage helps an animal hide from danger they blend in with their surroundings. flounder: a fish that spends most of its time on the ocean floor hiding from predators. Katydid: insect that looks like a leaf. Polar bear: has white fur that allows the animal to blend it with its surroundings.
Camouflage cont. Snowshoe hare: a rabbit that changes colors with the seasons- brown during the summer and white during the winter. http://encarta.msn.com/media_461517613_761568905_-1_1/Snowshoe_Hare_in_Summer_and_Winter.html Sloth: lives in the forests hanging from trees. Their fur is the color of tree bark. Each hair is grooved and algae grows in the grooves. This helps the sloth blend in.
Mimicry Mimicryis when animals imitate each other. It is an act in order to get a meal out of a situation to save their lives. Virginia opossum: this animal plays dead and goes limp when being attacked. The animals will lose interest in them. This is known as “playing possum”. Crocodile: This animal will stay very still- resembling a log. When its prey gets close enough, it will attack. The komodo dragon also stays very still until prey gets close enough.
Mimicry Sawfly: looks like a wasp. It has a stinger like a wasp; therefore, birds avoid it because they think it is poisonous. Milk snake: looks like a coral snake, but isn’t venomous. “Red against yellow- dangerous fellow”. The milk snake is black against red.
Fighting for protection • The leader of a herd of zebras will attack a hyena that is chasing the herd. • It will bite with its strong teeth and kick with its powerful hoofs.
Defending themselves • Some animals use poisons to defend themselves against would-be attackers. • Dragon fish have sharp pointed fins coated with poison. • Rattlesnakes use sharp fangs for hunting and protection. When a snake strikes another animal, it sends poison into its body.
Adaptations in Behavior • Behaviors that help animals survive are also adaptations. • Monarch butterflies have a behavior that allows them to live through the winter. Millions of monarch butterflies migrate to Mexico. • http://encarta.msn.com/media_461530190_761555723_-1_1/monarch_migration.html
Adaptations in Behavior • Another behavior that will help animals survive is to hibernate. • Hibernate- spend the winter in a state in which the body greatly slows down. • A toad buries itself in the mud during the rainy season in the desert of Arizona. • Woodchuck hibernates during the cold winter.
Past and Present Animals • How do present-day animals relate to animals of the past? • How does the wooly mammoth relate to the present-day elephant? How has it adapted to the environment? What about the saber tooth tiger and the present day tiger?
Past and Present Animals • There are animals that have had little or no change over time. • These animals include the shark and the turtle. • Why do you think there has not been any change among these animals?
Extra Activities • This website has a game for animal adaptations: http://ecokids.earthday.ca/pub/fun_n_games/games/adaptations/popup.cfm