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  1. Adaptations 1

  2. What is Adaptation? • “...the way in which a species becomes better suited to living in its environment.” • structures, characteristics, and behaviors that increase an organisms’ chance of surviving and reproducing in an environment. 2

  3. Structural adaptations are physical characteristics that help the organism survive (keep warm or cold, feed, communicate, move, etc.). Ex: Thick layer of blubber of a polar bear is used to keep it warm in the artic temperatures 3

  4. Movement • Many methods: running, flying, swimming, etc. • Different habitats present different problems to movement that need to be overcome • Specialists vs. Generalists Leopard seal – aquatic specialist 4 Good in water... ...cumbersome on land

  5. Why move? Common warthog fleeing from cheetah American pika collecting food 5 Grass snake hatchlings dispersing Radiated tortoises mating

  6. Adaptations to moving on land Movement on Land • Things to think about: • Speed vs. agility (mode of feeding dictates movement) : • Move to catch prey or to escape predators • Land may be open or have obstacles such as trees • Moving over different substrates e.g. sand, snow, mud (What does it feel like when you run in sand?) 6

  7. Snow Leopard • Meter long tail used for balance when walking across rocky cliffs • Short fore limbs and long hind limbs for agility in steep rugged habitat. 7

  8. Adaptations for living in trees Arboreal Movement Things to think about: • Forested areas may not be continuous • Moving from one tree to another :swinging, jumping, gliding • Balance and grip (falling could be fatal)

  9. Sugar glider • Patagium (flaps on side of body) allow it to glide up to 50 • meters • Tail used to control direction when gliding, grasp tree when • sitting • Feet are hand-like to grasp branches 9

  10. Adaptations to aquatic movement Aquatic Movement • Things to think about: • Friction – causing drag • Buoyancy – saline (salt) vs. freshwater • Currents and tides 10

  11. Great white shark • Streamlined body to reduce drag • Fins and tail used to propel/direct itself through water • No swim bladder, liver contains squalene which • maintains constant buoyancy 11

  12. Spotted handfish • Two different methods of moving through water • a. fins for swimming or walking along sea floor • Color allows it to blend into surroundings 12

  13. Adaptations to aerial movement Aerial Movement • Things to think about: • Overcoming friction • Use of air currents • Hot air vs. cold air 13

  14. Peregrine falcon • Fastest flying bird 155 miles/hour • Tear drop body shape makes it aerodynamic • Nostrils with baffles (small cones) that slow down air entering lungs so they do not explode 14

  15. California condor • Adapted for gliding using 3 meter wingspan, • can go miles on a single flap 15

  16. Behavioral adaptations are actions that are used by an organisms to help it survive. Ex: Birds migrating south during the winter Why? When fall turns to winter, temperature dips, food sources become scarce Birds move to locations where there is a constant food supply and nesting opportunities. 16

  17. Sea otters wind themselves up in the tops of kelp. Young otters must learn this behavior from older otters. Why? Prevents them from being swept away from their ecosystem by the tide. 17

  18. Bear Hibernating Why? When fall turns to winter, temperature dips, food sources become scarce • What occurs? • heartbeat drops from 55 beats/min to 10 beats/min • body temperature drops 5-9 degrees below normal • While in hibernation the bear uses stored energy it accumulated as fat to survive.  A bear can lose 15 to 40 percent of its body weight during the winter just by sleeping! 18

  19. Cheetah • Open plains specialist • Adapted for speed

  20. Spanish ibex • Rocky habitat specialist • Adapted for agility 20

  21. Polar bear • Habitat generalist – can move over land and in water • Adapted to polar habitat 21

  22. Legless movement • Movement without limbs • Adapted to overcome friction 22 Sidewinder Leopard slug

  23. Fossa • Habitat generalist – can move quickly through trees as well as on the ground • Adapted to jump between branches 23

  24. White-handed gibbon • Master of agility • Adapted to swing between branches 24

  25. Bornean orangutan Snow leopard Rainforest River Desert Which habitat? Polar Ocean Woodland Mountains Open grassland Red squirrel Nile crocodile 25

  26. Wild Journey • - You will be given an ‘Adaptations for Movement’ worksheet. • - Write in the adaptations that each species has for moving through its natural habitat. • Once you have finished the worksheet, you can begin your ‘Wild Journey’ • Get into groups of 5 or less • Each group will need: • 1x Wild Journey board game • 5x Species characters - use as your playing pieces on the board • 5x Species fact files - explains how your particular species is • adapted to moving through its natural habitat • 1x Rules sheet - read before beginning the game

  27. If you land on your natural habitat square: roll the dice again. • If you land on your least suitable habitat square: miss a go!

  28. Bornean orangutan Snow leopard How are they adapted to move in their habitat? Red squirrel Nile crocodile 28