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Implementation of the Three-Tiered Prevention Approach to School-wide Behavior Support

Implementation of the Three-Tiered Prevention Approach to School-wide Behavior Support

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Implementation of the Three-Tiered Prevention Approach to School-wide Behavior Support

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  1. Implementation of the Three-Tiered Prevention Approach to School-wide Behavior Support Tary J. Tobin, Celeste Rossetto Dickey University of Oregon

  2. Center on PBISDirected by George Sugai and Robert H. Horner ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Coordination, Consultation, and Evaluation (CCE) Center at the University of Wisconsin

  3. New book due out this summer from Guilford:Elementary School-Wide Prevention Models: Real Models and Real Lessons Learned Will have case studies of a variety of 3 tiered models of school wide interventions, some academic, some behavioral, some both academic and behavioral.

  4. Advance Organizer: 7 Sections • What is a 3 tiered approach to School Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS)? • What’s the background for this study? • How was this school selected? • Interventions at this school • Outcomes for students • Conclusions & Practical Implications • Discussion & questions Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  5. Section 1. What is a 3 tiered approach to School Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS)?

  6. School Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) combines primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention interventions: http://pbis.org Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  7. 3 Tiered Approach to SWPBS Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  8. 3 Tiered Approach to Prevention • Primary Prevention: Universal interventions for all students • Extra support for some students: • Secondary Prevention: Targeted interventions for students at heightened risk for behavior problems • Tertiary Prevention: Intensive interventions for individual students Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  9. Primary / Universal • Behavioral expectations are • defined, • taught, • and encouraged. Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  10. “Primary Prevention” within School-wide Positive Behavior Support, includes: • Defining behavioral expectations. • Using a range of positive and negative examples to teach all students and staff members. • Opportunities to practice. • Being rewarded and positively acknowledged when they use them. • Having most contacts between teachers and students be prosocial (positive and preventive) rather than corrective and punishing. • Using data to make decisions and to build action plans. The universal intervention is systematically coordinated with targeted and intensive individualized interventions. (Sugai & Horner, 2001; Sugai et al., 2000) Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  11. Secondary / Targeted • Behavior Education Program,also known as “Check In, Check Out” (CICO) (Crone, Horner, & Hawken, 2004) Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  12. Selective / Secondary / Targeted Examples: • First Step to Success • Behavior Education Program,also known as “Check In, Check Out” (CICO) • Crone, Horner, & Hawken, 2004; • Sugai, Horner, Lewis-Palmer, & Todd, 2005 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  13. Major Aspects of CICO Student • checks in at beginning of day with an adult at the school; • gives assessment form to teacher at beginning of each period; [Cue for teacher to monitor] • receives feedback on behavior at end of each class period; • checks out at end of day with the same adult; • takes CICO form home and gets it signed by parent. Team assesses % of points earned daily, and adjusts intervention weekly. (e.g., add self-monitoring) Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  14. Indicated / Tertiary / Individualized / Intensive • Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) • Competing Behavior Pathway (O’Neill et al., 1997) • Behavior Support Plan based on the FBA • (Crone & Horner, 2003) Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  15. Tertiary / Intensive Individualized Interventions • Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) • Behavior Support Plan based on the FBA (Crone & Horner, 2003) Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  16. Who Gets Extra Support? • Teachers decide who needs extra support, using Response to Intervention (RtI) logic. • Barkley has a strong support system for the teachers, including: • Action Plans from School-wide PBS Team • School Wide Information System (SWIS) • Teacher Assistance Team for Academic & Pre-referral Suggestions • District & School Teams Focused on Behavior Support for Individual Students • Student Study Team for Special Education Referrals and On-going Help Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  17. Bethel School District

  18. Bethel Demographics • 6,300 Students, 650 Staff • Suburban/Rural District • Free/Reduced Lunch (27-75%) District Average 48% • Mobility Rate (8%-29%)

  19. Bethel School District 2007-08

  20. Bethel History PBS District-wide Implementation 2000-present RtI 2007 - present Project Prepare 1988-1991 EBS Support Pilot Project 1991-1994 Bethel EBS Project1994-present 1988 Bethel Reading Project 1996-present Bethel Math Project 2006 - present 2008

  21. Visibility Funding Political Support Leadership Team Active Coordination Training Evaluation Coaching Local School Teams/Demonstrations

  22. Shared Features of Academic and Behavior Support Systems • Commitment to scientifically-based practices • Approach based on principles of effective instruction • Data-based decision making • Regular screening • Universal core curriculum • Continuum of support beyond universal systems

  23. Bethel Reading & Math Initiatives • Three tier model • PBS • Reading K-9 • Mathematics K-12 • Research/University Partnerships • PBS – Sugai, Horner, Anderson & Colvin • Reading – Kame’enui, Simmons, Good & Harn • RTI – Fuchs & Harn • Mathematics – Chard, Jungjohann, Baker, Ketterlin-Geller, Tindal & Doabler

  24. PBS in Bethel • PBS District Leadership Team since 2000 • PBS District Coordinator since 2000 • Elementary, Middle and K-8 schools Monthly School PBS Team Meetings • Quarterly District PBS Team Trainings • Quarterly PBS Facilitator Meetings

  25. PBS In Bethel Schools • PBS Schoolwide Team – meets monthly • BISSC Team – meets 1-2x monthly (now called IPBS Team) • TAT (Teacher Assistance Team) meet about individual students to develop plans

  26. Braun, Kowalko & Smith, 2007

  27. Braun, Kowalko & Smith, 2007

  28. Braun, Kowalko & Smith, 2007

  29. Braun, Kowalko & Smith, 2007

  30. Braun, Kowalko & Smith, 2007

  31. Braun, Kowalko & Smith, 2007

  32. Bethel Student Assistance Process • Universal: PBS School-wide Interventions • Targeted: Check In Check Out, Social Skills Groups, Counseling Groups, Breakfast Buddies, Recess Club, etc. • Individual: FBA/BSP, Individualized support, Family and Community involvement

  33. Teacher Assistance Team TAT) • Staff Member refers student to Teacher Assistance Team • Team includes Teacher, Previous Teacher, Counselor, Special Educator, Administrator, and others • Decisions about intervention & follow up scheduled

  34. BISSC (Bethel Individual Student System Cadre)* • Monthly meeting to review students receiving targeted and individual interventions • Team includes: Special Educator, Counselor, Administrator, District Level Liaison (School Psychologist or Behavior Specialist) • Decisions about plan revisions, follow up TAT or moving from Targeted to Intensive interventions * Now called IPBS (Individual PBS Team)

  35. Section 2.What’s the background for the study of this school’s implementation of the 3 tiered model?

  36. A National Effort • Behavior and/or Reading Research Centers (Oregon, Texas, Nebraska, North Carolina, Kansas) • United States Office of Special Education Programs • Coordination, Consultation, and Evaluation Center of the University of Wisconsin. Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  37. Purpose of the Oregon Behavior Center Tracking Sample Study: • “To expand the conceptual and empirical knowledge about behavior support • for students who exhibit or are at-risk of developing serious problem behaviors that lead to later discipline problems” (Sugai & Horner, 2003). Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  38. Key Behavioral Measures • Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD, Walker & Severson, 1990) orEarly Screening Project (ESP, Walker, Severson, & Feil, 1995). • Social Skills Rating System (SSRS, Gresham & Elliott, 1990). • Office Discipline Referrals Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  39. SSBD/ESP screens for Internalizing or Externalizing behavior problems • Identified by scores on the Adaptive and/or Maladaptive behavior scales of the SSBS / ESP • based on norms by grade level and gender • At or above 70th percentile on internalizing or externalizing behavior problems was the criteria for being in the Tracking Sample. Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  40. Screening Tools Used to Identify Behavior Tracking Sample • Grade 1:Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD, Walker & Severson, 1990) • Kindergarten: Early Screening Project (ESP, Walker, Severson, & Feil, 1995) Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  41. Lower on adaptive behaviors: • Gains other children’s attention in an appropriate manner. • Expresses anger appropriately (without becoming violent or destructive) • Gains teacher attention in appropriate ways. • Participates well in group activities. • Initiates positive social contact with peers. Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  42. Higher on maladaptive behaviors: • Behaves inappropriately in class when directed (e.g., shouts, defies teacher). • Creates disturbance during class activities (noisy, bothers other children, etc.) • Tests or challenges teacher’s limits/rules • Pouts or sulks • Is overly affectionate with others (touching, hugging, kissing, hanging on, etc.) Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  43. Higher Maladaptive Score on SSBD/ESPStatistically Significantly (p < .01) Related to Extra Support Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  44. SSBD/ESP screens for Internalizing or Externalizing behavior problems • Identified by scoring in the 30% percentile for “at-risk” for behavior disorders • on the Adaptive and/or Maladaptive behavior scales Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  45. Cohort Design: Kindergarten and First Grade Students • Screening done to select new students for the Tracking Sample each year, while still following and monitoring progress of each cohort over the years, up to 3rd grade • 2002-2003: Cohort A starts • 2003-2004: Cohort B starts Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  46. Key Behavioral Outcome Measure • Grade-based Percentile for Problem Behaviorsas rated by teachers on the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS, Gresham & Elliott, 1990) Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  47. SSRS has 3 Main Scales: 1. Social Skills [Similar to the Adaptive behaviors on the SSBD] 2. Problem Behavior [Similar to the Maladaptive behaviors on the SSBD] 3. Academic Competence (includes reading, math, motivation, intellectual function, etc.) Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

  48. Social Skills Rating Scale (SSRS) provides scores in 7 specific areas: 1. Cooperation, 2. Assertion, 3. Self-Control (the Social Skills) 4. Externalizing, 5. Internalizing, 6. Hyperactive Behaviors (the Problem Behaviors) 7. Academic Competence (same as the main Academic Competence Scale) Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL