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  1. REVIEW FOR THE U.S. HISTORY FALL FINAL EXAM INSTRUCTIONS: Go through the slides and answer each question in the packet; the slide numbers are listed for each question

  2. Poor farmers, led by Nathaniel Bacon, blamed Virginia’s governor for not protecting them and started a rebellion; it would be called “Bacon’s Rebellion” English settlers in western Virginia suffered from low tobacco prices and frequent Indian attacks

  3. Connecticut was important for creating the first written constitution in U.S. history called The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut Much like the later U.S. Constitution, the Fundamental Orders provided a framework plan for government

  4. “Puritans” believed that the Anglican Church compromised too far by allowing some Catholic rituals; they felt the Anglican Church needed to be “purified” The Anglican Church rejected the Puritans’ reform ideas, which led to some Puritans seeking a place in the New World where they could practice their ways of religion

  5. John Winthrop was the Puritans’ political and religious leader; they founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony The Puritans did not want to break away from the Anglican Church; they wanted to set an example of how “true Christianity” should be practiced and inspire reform within England’s church

  6. One of the most important middle colonieswasPennsylvania, which was founded by William Penn

  7. Penn was a member of a religious sect called the Quakers; they were strongly in favor of social equality and religious tolerance Penn founded the colony of Pennsylvania on these principles

  8. Early in the colonial times, the Spanish established a colony in what is now Florida The English created the royal colony of Georgiato serveas a “buffer zone” between English colonies and Spain’s colony in Florida

  9. By the 1650s, Britain began to embrace the economic policy of mercantilism, which is based on the idea that colonies exist to generate wealth for the mother country Mercantilism The system of mercantilism increased demand for raw materials from the colonies The colonies needed many laborers, which led to the Atlantic Slave Trade

  10. English plantations owners felt that slaves were a more dependable supply of labor, so there were far more slaves than indentured servants in the English colonies • The vast majority of slaves came from the coast of West Africa

  11. Benjamin Franklin represented opportunity in America by rising to fame through his printing business, scientific inventions, and political leadership in the Enlightenment Era

  12. By the 1700s, church attendance in the colonies had declined A movement calledthe Great Awakening began; preachers used gatherings called “revivals” to encourage religious conversions

  13. The preacher Jonathan Edwards was a leader of the Great Awakening, using “fire and passion” at camp revivals to encourage people to examine their faith The Great Awakening led to the growth of Baptist, Methodist, and Presbyterian churches in the American colonies

  14. The French and Indian War was a conflict between France and England The English won the war, and the Treaty of Paris was the agreement that ended the war In the Treaty of Paris, the French lost most of their North American empire

  15. “Salutary neglect” was the policy in which England did not strictly enforce its laws regarding who their colonies were allowed to trade with; they allowed the American colonies to conduct trade with other countries besides England to keep them happy But when the French and Indian War was over, the English had much debt; because the English needed money, they ended salutary neglect The English began levying taxes on the colonists and strictly enforcing trade regulations in an effort to raise money and pay off their war debts The American colonists were upset at the new taxes and the English taking more control over them, which would eventually lead to the colonists fighting England to gain independence

  16. In reaction to the Stamp Act, the Sons of Liberty were formed; they were a group that protested the new English restrictions and became leaders of the colonial resistance

  17. The Townshend Acts led to the colonials protesting that they were being taxed unfairly: “no taxation without representation”

  18. Tensions increased after the so-called “Boston Massacre”, a fight between a mob of colonists and British soldiers

  19. Paul Revere’s etching of the Boston Massacre became an American best-seller With only four dead, this was hardly a “massacre”, but it reveals the power of colonial propaganda Colonists injured British soldiers by throwing snowballs and oyster shells

  20. The Tea Act of 1773 led to the “Boston Tea Party”

  21. In reaction to the Boston Tea Party, the British passed laws that would be called the “Intolerable Acts”

  22. The shots exchanged between British troops and American colonists at Lexington and Concord was the start of the American Revolution

  23. In his written work, Common Sense, Thomas Paine sharply criticized the British Parliament while making a powerful argument for the American colonists to declare their independence from Britain

  24. The Americans formally stated their break from Britain and the reasons for doing so with the Declaration of Independence (penned by Thomas Jefferson) Many of the ideas in the Declaration were influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment

  25. Benjamin Franklin made a major contribution to the success of the American Revolution by serving as a diplomat to France Franklin secured an alliance with France; the French would help the Americans in the war with England

  26. On Christmas Eve 1776, George Washington gave Americans hope by crossing the Delaware River and surprising British troops in Trenton, New Jersey

  27. The surprising victory at Trenton showed how determined the Americans were to defeat the British

  28. The Battle of Yorktown proved to be the decisive victory for the Americans over the British, who negotiated an end to the war after this battle Washington’s Continental Army had help from the French: the French Caribbean fleet and Rochambeau’s army contributed to the victory

  29. The Articles of Confederation were America’s first national government, but the Articles were weak and ineffective

  30. Among its many weaknesses were the Articles’ inability to enact and collect taxes, the restriction of trade between states, and worthless paper money printed by state governments

  31. Shays’ Rebellion proved to be THE most convincing event that led to the Constitutional Convention of 1787, in which the Articles were eliminated Poor farmers in western Massachusetts were angered over high taxes and the possibility of losing their farms Daniel Shays led an uprising and closed down debt courts, then threatened a federal arsenal

  32. Victory for the small states Victory for the large states The approval of the Great Compromise at the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention guaranteed representation based on population in the House and equal representation for each state in the Senate

  33. The 3/5 Compromise Northern and Southern states could not agree whether or not to count slaves in a population size; if slaves counted, Southern states would have great representation in the House Three-Fifths Compromise settled the issue: three of every five slaves would count in the population This Compromise had the effect of increasing Southern representation in the House of Representatives, but not as much as it could have been

  34. Separation of powers and the system of checks and balances were included in the Constitution for the purpose of ensuring the national government did not have too much power Separation of Powers

  35. Separation of powers and the system of checks and balances were included in the Constitution for the purpose of ensuring the national government did not have too much power

  36. Federalists and Anti-Federalists FEDERALISTS were in favor getting rid of the Articles of Confederation ANTI-FEDERALISTS did not want to get rid of the Articles of Confederation Federalists wanted to ratify (approve) the Constitution; they were educated and organized, led by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison Anti-federalists were against ratifying the Constitution because they felt it gave too much power to the national government Hamilton and Madison authored “The Federalist Papers”, which had the purpose of promoting the ratification of the Constitution They argued that the Constitution was an illegal change in the government

  37. To win ratification, the Federalists agreed to add a Bill of Rights to protect citizens’ liberty; all 13 states then agreed to ratify the Constitution The Bill of Rights are the first ten amendments of the Constitution; they protect citizens’ rights and were put in place to reassure those who feared the power of the national government

  38. In his farewell address in 1796, George Washington warned America against the dangers of getting involved in foreign affairs, political parties, and sectionalism

  39. One of the parts of Alexander Hamilton’s economic plan for the United States was a national bank (the Bank of the United States)

  40. In the case of Marbury v. Madison, the principle of judicial review was established; the Supreme Court had the power to declare acts by Congress unonstitutional

  41. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 was important because it outlined how states would enter the Union in the future (for example, when a territory had over 60,000 people, it could apply to be a state)

  42. Jefferson did not know if he had the Constitutional power to buy Louisiana, but he did it anyway; this went against his own principle where he insisted on limited interpretation of the Constitution In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson authorized the Louisiana Purchase from France for $15 million

  43. The Americans claimed victory in the War of 1812 with Britain; this led to a rise in American nationalism (pride in one’s nation and identifying oneself with a nation)

  44. The Erie Canal was a massive construction project; it was a man-made waterway that connected New York City to the Great Lakes; the Canal made New York City the largest port city in America

  45. Issued by President James Monroe in 1823, the Monroe Doctrine declared that European powers were forbidden to interfere with any countries in the Western Hemisphere (such as Mexico and South America) European imperialism in the Western Hemisphere would be viewed as a threat to the United States

  46. In return, the United States promised to intervene in any conflicts in Europe

  47. The cotton gin, mechanical reaper, and the steel plow are inventions that helped fuel the agricultural boom associated with the first industrial revolution

  48. Horace Mann was a lawyer interested in education reform in the early 1800s Mann saw education as a way to form children into productive citizens

  49. Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton held the first U.S. convention on the rights of women in Seneca Falls, NY