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Events leading to wwii (includes major dictators) PowerPoint Presentation
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Events leading to wwii (includes major dictators)

Events leading to wwii (includes major dictators)

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Events leading to wwii (includes major dictators)

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  1. Ch. 17 Events leading to wwii (includes major dictators)

  2. Europe after WWI • WWI left every major European country nearly bankrupt • Only the U.S. & Japan came out of WWI in better financial shape than before (Why?) • Neither had been a wartime battlefield

  3. Germany after WWI • Weimar Republic- GY’s new democratic govt. • Weaknesses: • GY lacked a strong democratic tradition • Postwar GY had several major political parties & minor ones • Millions of Germans blamed the Weimar govt. for the country’s defeat & postwar humiliation

  4. Inflation in Germany • During WWI- GY didn’t increase its wartime taxes • To pay expenses of the war, the Germans simply printed money: • The paper money lost value after GY’s defeat • Burdened with heavy reparation payments, GY printed even more money • Result = value of the mark (GY’s currency) fell sharply & severe inflation set in

  5. Do not write • A loaf of bread cost less than a mark in 1918 • A loaf of bread cost more than 160 marks in 1922. • A loaf of bread cost more than 200 billion marks by late 1923. • People took wheelbarrows full of money to buy food.

  6. Recovery • The Dawes Plan-American and British bankers provided loans to enable Germany to expand production and make reparations payments to the Allies • Kellogg-Briand Pact- treaty that attempted to outlaw war. (Pact of Paris)

  7. The Great Depression- U.S. • 1929- stock market crashed, businesses failed, banks closed, & people lost their life savings • The U.S. placed high tariffs on imported goods to protect U.S. jobs & products • World trade dropped & unemployment soared • World economies suffered because of the U.S. economy’s problems

  8. CSWK/HMWK- Do not have to write questions • P. 535 #1 only- “Geography Skills” • P.536 “Reading Check”- There are two. • P. 538 “Section Assessment”- #1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 • For the terms/names- quadrants not required, but give full details for terms & country & importance of the people

  9. Soviet Union • Communists- instituted one-party rule, suppressed individual liberties, & punished opponents • Totalitarianism

  10. Joseph Stalin- *“Uncle Joe”*name given by the U.S. • 1926- Stalin became the Soviet dictator (after Lenin’s death) • 1927- Stalin began a massive effort to industrialize his country • 8-10 million peasants died resisting USSR & Stalin’s communist policies

  11. Italy • Fascism- the nation was more important than the individual. • Individualism- made countries weak & a strong govt. needed to be led by a dictator that would impose order on society. • Strongly anti-communists. • Stood for the protection of private property & the middle class.

  12. Benito Mussolini- “Il Duce”- The Leader • Former schoolmaster & journalist • 1919- founded Italy’s Fascist Party • Offered working class full employment & social security, stressed national pride • Backed by Fascist militia (Blackshirts)

  13. Benito Mussolini- seizes power • 1922- Threatened to march on Rome to “defend Italy against a communist revolution”. • Conservative advisers persuaded the king to appoint Mussolini as the premier. • Worked quickly to destroy democracy & set up a dictatorship. • Supported by industrialists, landowners, & the Catholic Church

  14. CSWK/HMWK- Do not have to write the questions. • P. 541 “Geography Skills”- #1 only • P. 541 Reading Check • P. 543 Reading Check • P. 546 #1, 2, 4, 6

  15. Japan’s Dictatorship • Japan hit by a depression • Military officers blamed the country’s problems on corrupt politicians & said: • Japan was destined to dominate East Asia • Democracy was “un-Japanese” & bad for the country

  16. Japan’s Leaders • Emperor Shōwa (Hirohito) • Hideki Tōjō (the prime minister) • Sep. 1931- Japan invaded Manchuria • 1937- Japan attacked China

  17. Spain’s Dictatorship • 1936- General Francisco Franco led a rebellion with the Fascists • Helped by the Soviet Union, Germany, & Italy

  18. Germany Swastika- Ancient “good luck” symbol. Used by Buddhists & Hindus • Nazism • Germany brand of fascism 1930s- Hitler turned the swastika sideways & it became a symbol of hatred.

  19. Adolf Hitler • Anti-communist & admirer of Mussolini • Fought for GY in WWI • Hated the Weimar Republic • Joined the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi Party)- nationalistic & anti-communist

  20. Hitler- Rise to power • Nov. 1923- Nazis tried to seize power in Munich & Hitler tried to seize power at a bar (Beer Hall Putsch)- failed & he was arrested • Wrote Mein Kampf- “My Struggle”, blueprint for the future

  21. Hitler’s Plans • Unification of all Germans under one govt. • Germans (blonde-hair, blue-eyed) belonged to a “master race” called Aryans • Germans needed more lebensraum (living space) • Believed Jews were responsible for GY’s defeat in WWI and problems thereafter

  22. Hitler becomes a leader • Focused on getting Nazis elected to the Reichstag-lower house of the German parliament • Many German leaders felt if Hitler became leader of Germany legally, they could control him • 1933- Hitler appointed chancellor (prime minister)

  23. Hitler institutes his plans • Called for new elections • Ordered police to crackdown on the Socialist & Communist Parties • Storm Troopers- intimidated voters • The Reichstag voted to give Hitler dictatorial powers

  24. Hitler as Leader • 1934- Hitler became President • Führer- Leader • Began to rebuild Germany’s military (violation of the Treaty of Versailles)

  25. The Bad Guys Form Alliances • 1936- Rome-Berlin Axis (Italy and Germany) • 1936- Anti-Comintern Pact- (Germany, Italy, & Japan) • 1940- Axis Powers- (German, Italy, and Japan)

  26. Depression & effects of WWI • June 1934- all the debtor nations from WWI (except Finland) announced they would no longer repay their war debts Bread & Soup lines were common in debt ridden Europe

  27. What’s up with the U.S. ???? • After WWI, many Americans supported isolationism • FDR supports internationalism- trade b/w nations creates prosperity & helps to prevent war • He was outvoted by those who supported isolationism • Neutrality Act of 1935- made it illegal for Americans to sell arms (weapons) to any country at war • Neutrality Act of 1937- required warring countries to buy non-military supplies from the U.S. on a “cash-and-carry” basis

  28. CSWK/HMWK • P. 558 #2-6, 8-10, 11-13, 15, 16, 18-20 *Do not have to write question/sentence.