Kingdom Plantae - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Kingdom Plantae

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  1. Kingdom Plantae • 1. Bryophytes • Mosses, liverworts and hornworts. liverwort moss hornwort moss

  2. Bryophytes Seed Plants Tracheophytes Evolutionary Treeof Major Plant Groups Liver-worts Gymno-sperms Angio-sperms Mosses Ferns Flowers & Fruits appear True vascular tissue& lignin appear Seeds andpollen appear AncestralAlgae

  3. sporophyte gametophyte - photosynthetic

  4. Bryophyte life cycle • Exhibit alternation of generations: they have a gametophyte and sporophyte generation • Copy diagram of life cycle

  5. Non-vascular plants, i.e. they don’t have xylem or phloem • Advancements over algae: cuticle, multicellular gametangia, stomata • Habitat: they require moist environment for active growth and sexual reproduction

  6. The male plant produces clusters of antheridia which contain thousands of ciliate sperm.

  7. The female produces archegonia, each containing a single egg.

  8. Bryophytes • Gametophyte generation (n) is dominant • Has green “leafy stems” and root-like structures called rhizoids, for anchoring (not true roots!) • Have stomata and cuticle • Bryophytes lack vascular tissue – do not have xylem or phloem. • This absence of vascular tissue prevents bryophytes from having true roots, stems or leaves. • Also, lack of conducting tissue limits their size.

  9. Bryophyte reproduction • Gametophyte plant produces multicellular sex organs: • Archegonia – produces eggs (female) • Antheridia – produces motile sperm (male) • Outer layers protects and prevents drying • Motile sperm must swim to archegonia.

  10. Bryophyte reproduction • Sporophyte occurs after egg is fertilized by sperm (2 n) • Sporophyte grows in the archegonium of the gametophyte plant – it’s dependent on it • Mature sporophyte consists of: • Foot (point of attachment) • Seta (stalk) • Capsule (spore case)

  11. Bryophytes • Sporocytes within the Sporophyte undergo meiosis to produce a single kind of haploid spore • If spore lands on suitable place, it will germinate into a protonema, the initial stage of the gametophyte plant.

  12. Bryophyte significance • Bryophytes are small and inconspicuous, but important part of the biosphere • Food for mammals, birds • Important to prevent soil erosion along streams • Commercially – peat moss (Sphagnum) is used as fuel, soil conditioner, by florists