Kingdom Plantae Biology
Kingdom Plantae • Multi-cellular • Autotrophic • Eukaryotic • Cell walls made of cellulose • Store food in the form of starch
Have chloroplasts containing chlorophyll • Most are terrestrial although there are exceptions
Kingdom Plantae Nonvascular Plants------ Vascular Plants Seedless Seeded Have no true stem, leaves, or roots Gymnosperm Angiosperm Monocot Dicot
Nonvascular • No vessels • No roots • No stems • No leaves • Ex: Mosses and liverworts
Vascular • Have vessels to transport food and water • They have roots, stems or leaves • Ex: grass, corn, trees, flowers, bushes
Xylem: transports water • Phloem: transports food & nutrients
Seedless plants (e.g., ferns) have a vascular system but reproduce using spores.
Seed Plants-reproduce using seeds • Gymnosperms have seeds that are not enclosed. • "naked seeds" • cone bearing plants (seeds grow on cones) • needle like leaves • usually stay green year round • wind pollinated • Examples: pine trees & evergreens
Angiosperms are the most successful group of plants • They have co-evolved with insects to improve pollination. • flowering plants • seeds are enclosed, usually in a fruit • most are pollinated by birds & bees • have finite growing seasons • Examples: grasses, tulips, oaks, dandelions • Divided into two main groups: Monocots & Dicots
Monocots • Angiosperms have 1 seed leaf (cotyledon) • parallel veins on leaves • 3 part symmetry for flowers • fibrous roots • Example: lilies, onions, corn, grasses, wheat • Vascular tissue scattered
Dicots • Angiosperms that have 2 seed leaves (cotyledons) • net veins on leaves • flowers have 4-5 parts • taproots • Examples: trees and ornamental flowers • Vascular tissue arranged in a ring
Success of Angiosperms • Transport gametes over great distances. • Efficient dispersal via fruit. • Tough, water resistant leaves for survival in hostile environments.
Pollination • Birds are attracted to red flowers. • Bees can see colors that humans cannot. • Moth-pollinated flowers are white and bloom at night.
Many insects are attracted to odors. One species smells like rotting meat and is pollinated by flies. • Flowers are often shaped so that non-pollinators cannot reach nectar or pollen. For example, hummingbird-pollinated flowers are long, and shaped like the bill of a hummingbird. • Wind-pollinated flowers are small, have no petals and little color and do not produce nectar.
Problems living in a terrestrial ecosystem • Support - in water, the plant is held up. On land, a support system is required.
Getting Water and Nutrients • Aquatic plants are surrounded by water and nutrients so most cells can just absorb them the environment. Terrestrial plants require a system for collecting and transporting water. • Plants developed root systems that can collect and transport water. Some plants have shallow roots which spread out to collect water. • Water carrying minerals from the roots can travel to all parts of the plant and food made in the leaves can travel to non-photosynthetic parts of the plant.
Drying Out • Leaves are covered by a waterproof outer layer called the cuticle. • Openings in the leaves called stomata allow passage of gases for photosynthesis but can be closed when it is too warm. • Gymnosperms have very narrow leaves to minimize water loss.
Spreading Gametes • Spores – tiny reproductive cells are carried long distance by the wind • Seeds: • The embryo inside the seed is surrounded by a tough, drought-resistant, protective seed coat. Food packaged in the seed provides energy for the young plant until it can grow above the soil and begin photosynthesizing. • Adaptations of seeds help in their dispersal. Some seeds are carried by wind, stick to the fur of animals or are eaten.