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BELL RINGER 1.9.2012. Take out your reading assignment and dream log projects to turn in. If you did any extra credit , turn them in at this time as well. On your bell ringer sheet, briefly describe “learning” in your own words. . Unit 7: Learning. AP Psychology Ms. Desgrosellier.
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BELL RINGER1.9.2012 Take out your reading assignment and dream log projects to turn in. If you did any extra credit , turn them in at this time as well. On your bell ringer sheet, briefly describe “learning” in your own words.
Unit 7: Learning AP Psychology Ms. Desgrosellier
Key Ideas: Classical conditioning Classical conditioning paradigm Classical conditioning learning curve Strength of conditioning Classical aversive conditioning Operant conditioning Thorndike’s instrumental conditioning Operant conditioning training procedures Operant aversive conditioning Reinforcers Operant conditioning training schedules of reinforcement Superstitious behavior Cognitive processes in learning The contingency model Latent learning Insight learning Social learning Biological factors in learning Preparedness evolves Instinctive draft
Learning • learning: a relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience. • This is an example of nurture.
Classical Conditioning • Learning which takes place when two or more stimuli are presented together. • An unconditioned stimulus is paired repeatedly with a neutral stimulus until it acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response. • The subject learns to give a response it already knows to a new stimulus.
Classical Conditioning • Can be used to overcome fears, increasing or decreasing immune functioning, and increasing or decreasing attraction of people or products.
Classical Conditioning • Stimulus: a change in the environment that elicits (brings about) a response. • Neutral stimulus (NS): a stimulus that initially does not elicit a response.
Classical Conditioning • Unconditioned stimulus (US): reflexively, or automatically, brings about the conditioned response. • Unconditioned response (UR): an automatic, involuntary reaction to an unconditioned stimulus.
Classical Conditioning • Conditioned stimulus (CS): a neutral stimulus (NS) at first, but when paired with the US, it elicits the conditioned response (CR). • Acquisition: in classical conditioning, learning to give a known response to a new stimulus, the neutral stimulus.
Classical Conditioning • Pavlov used classical conditioning to train his dogs.
Classical Conditioning • CS = the organism LEARNED to respond to it. • US = the organism responds REFLEXIVELY
Classical Conditioning • In classical conditioning, the learner is passive – behavior is learned by association. • Presentation of the US strengthens or reinforces the behavior. • Video (The Office)
Strength of Conditioning • Delayed conditioning: ideal training – the NS precedes the US and they briefly overlap. • Produces the strongest conditioning. • Simultaneous conditioning: NS and US are paired together at the same time. • Produces weak conditioning.
Strength of Conditioning • Trace conditioning: NS presented first, removed, then the US is presented. • Produces moderately strong conditioning. • Backward conditioning: US presented first and NS follows. • Usually produces no conditioning. • e.g. when a pregnant woman vomits hours after eating a burrito often will not eat a burrito again.
Little Albert Study • John B. Watson conditioning a nine-month-old infant known as Little Albert to fear a rat. • US = Loud noise • UR = Crying to loud noise • NS = The rat • CS = The rat • CR = Crying when seeing the rat
Little Albert Study • Extinction: repeatedly presenting a CS without an US leads to return of NS. • e.g. showing the rat over and over with no loud noise.
Little Albert Study • Spontaneous recovery: after extinction, and without training, the previous CS suddenly elicits the CR again temporarily. • e.g. seeing the rat after a short break, Little Albert starts crying again.
Little Albert Study • Generalization: stimuli similar to the CS also elicit the CR without training. • Little Albert crying when he sees anything white and fuzzy.
Little Albert Study • Discrimination: the ability to tell the difference between stimuli so that only the CS elicits the CR. • Little Albert NOT crying when he sees other white, fuzzy things.
Little Albert Study • Higher-order conditioning: classical conditioning in which a well-learned CS is paired with an NS to produce a CR to the NS. • The new CR is not as strong as the original CR. • e.g. Conditioning your dog to salivate to a light instead of a bell
Classical Aversive Conditioning • Conditioned taste aversion: an intense dislike and avoidance of a food because of its association with an unpleasant or painful stimulus through backward conditioning.
BELL RINGER1.11.2012 Think about the conditioning experiment from yesterday’s Bell Ringer (Martese, Toyin, and cookies). What would happen if extinction occurred? Spontaneous recovery? Generalization? Descrimination?
Operant Conditioning • learning that occurs when an active learner performs certain voluntary behavior and the consequences of the behavior (pleasant or unpleasant) determine the likelihood of its recurrence.
Thorndike’s Instrumental Conditioning • E.L. Thorndike experimented with hungry cats. He put them in “puzzle boxes” and placed a fish outside. • To get the fish, the cats stepped on a pedal, which opened the door.
Thorndike’s Instrumental Conditioning • The cats clawed at the door at first until they accidently stepped on the pedal. • The time it took the cats to escape gradually fell.
Thorndike’s Instrumental Conditioning • Thorndike called this instrumental learning: associative learning in which a behavior becomes more or less probable depending on its consequences. • Law of Effect: behaviors followed by positive consequences are strengthened while behaviors followed by annoying or negative consequences are weakened.
B.F. Skinner’s Training Procedures • The ABC’s of behavior: • A: antecedents (or stimuli) that are present before a behavior occurs. • B: behavior that the organism voluntarily emits. • C: consequences that follow the behavior.
B.F. Skinner’s Training Procedures • positive reinforcement: reward training, a rewarding consequence that follows a behavior or response that increases the probability that the response will occur again. • e.g. giving a child allowance after they do their chores • e.g. giving a piece of candy after a student gives the correct answer
B.F. Skinner’s Training Procedures • negative reinforcement: removal of an aversive (bad) consequence that follows a voluntary behavior thereby increasing the probability the behavior will be repeated. • e.g. taking an aspirin when you have a headache. • e.g. putting on your seatbelt when you hear the buzzer in your car.
B.F. Skinner’s Training Procedures • Reinforcement = increasing behavior! • Video (The Big Bang Theory)
DO NOW 2.9.2011 Take out your reading notes to be checked. THEN briefly describe the differences and similarities between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement.
B.F. Skinner’s Training Procedures • Positive punishment: an aversive (bad) consequence that follows a voluntary behavior, thereby decreasing the probability the behavior will be repeated. • e.g. every time a student talks out of turn they get shocked • e.g. bank fees when your overdraft
B.F. Skinner’s Training Procedures • Negative punishment (omission training): removal of a rewarding consequence that follows a voluntary behavior, thereby decreasing the probability the behavior will be repeated. • e.g. taking away your cell phone for getting bad grades • e.g. getting grounded for missing your curfew
B.F. Skinner’s Training Procedures • Punishment = decreasing behavior! • “Positive” = giving a consequence • “Negative” = taking something away
Operant Aversive Conditioning • Aversive conditioning is both negative reinforcement and punishment. • Avoidance behavior takes away the aversive stimulus before it begins. • e.g. a dog jumping over a hurdle to avoid an electric shock.
Operant Aversive Conditioning • Escape behavior takes away the aversive stimulus after it has already started. • e.g. the dog is shocked and jumps the hurdle to stop the shocking.
Operant Aversive Conditioning • Learned helplessness: the feeling of futility and passive resignation that results from the inability to avoid repeated aversive events • If it then becomes possible to avoid or escape the aversive stimuli, it is unlikely that the learner will respond.
BELL RINGER1.13.2012 Objective: SWBAT define and provide examples of latent learning, insight, social learning, and instinctive drift. In your own words, provide an example of positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment & negative punishment.
Reinforcers • primary reinforcer: something that is biologically important, and thus, rewarding. • e.g. food, sleep, oxygen • secondary reinforcer: something that is rewarding because it is associated with a primary reinforcer. • e.g. money, points, gold stars
Reinforcers • Generalized Reinforcer: secondary reinforcer associated with a number of different primary reinforcers. • e.g. money
Reinforcers • Token economy: an operant conditioning training system that has been used extensively in mental hospitals and jails. • Tokens are given to positively reinforce desired behavior. • Tokens can then be exchanged for items and special privileges, like food, TV time, or weekend passes.
Teaching a New Behavior • Shaping: positively reinforcing closer and closer approximations of a desired behavior to teach a new behavior. • e.g. If I want my dog to eat in the laundry room instead of the kitchen, I might slowly move the bowl and reward the dog every time he eats at his new location. Eventually, he’ll be eating in the laundry room.
Teaching a New Behavior • Chaining: establishing a specific sequence of behaviors by initially positively reinforcing each behavior in a desired sequence, then later rewarding only the completed sequence.
Teaching a New Behavior • e.g. Trainers at an aquarium will train their animal to do a routine and reward the desired behavior step by step (jump, flip, splash). Eventually, they will only reward the animal when it does the entire sequence.
Schedules of Reinforcement • A schedule refers to the training program that states how and when reinforcers will be given to the learner.
Schedules of Reinforcement • Continuous reinforcement: schedule that provides reinforcement following the particular behavior every time it is emitted. • Best for the acquisition of a new behavior.
Schedules of Reinforcement • Partial reinforcement (intermittent schedule): occasional reinforcement of a particular behavior. • Produces responding that is more resistant to extinction. • 4 types of partial reinforcement.