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INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY
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INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

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  1. INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

  2. Learning Objectives • Describe the basic functions of organisms. • Define anatomy and physiology and the various specialties of each. • Identify the major levels of organization in organisms . • Identify the 11 organ systems of the body and their major components. • Explain the concept of homeostasis, including both positive and negative feedback. • Using the proper anatomical terms, identify the major body cavities.

  3. SECTION 1-1Introduction: Studying the Human body

  4. The basic functions of organisms • Organization • Responsiveness • Growth and differentiation • Reproduction • Movement • Metabolism and excretion

  5. The Specialties of Anatomy • Gross Anatomy • Surface anatomy • Regional anatomy • Systemic anatomy • Developmental anatomy • Microscopic anatomy • Cytology • Histology

  6. Figure 1.1 Comparative Anatomy • All vertebrates share a basic pattern of organization, most noticeable during embryology. Figure 1.1

  7. The Specialties of Physiology • Cell physiology • Special physiology • Systemic physiology • Pathological physiology

  8. SECTION 1-2Levels of Organization

  9. Figure 1.2 Levels of Organization Figure 1.2.1

  10. Figure 1.2 Levels of Organization Figure 1.2.2

  11. Figure 1.3 An Introduction to the Organ Systems • Integumentary system • Nervous system • Skeletal system • Endocrine system • Muscular system • Cardiovascular system

  12. Figure 1.3.1

  13. Figure 1.3.2

  14. Figure 1.3.3

  15. Figure 1.3.4

  16. Figure 1.3.5

  17. Figure 1.3.6

  18. Figure 1.3 continued • Lymphatic system • Urinary system • Respiratory system • Digestive system • Reproductive system PLAY Animation: Samples of the Visible Human Data set

  19. Figure 1.3.7

  20. Figure 1.3.8

  21. Figure 1.3.9

  22. Figure 1.3.11

  23. Figure 1.3.10

  24. Figure 1.3.12

  25. SECTION 1-3Homeostasis

  26. Two general points within homeostasis • Autoregulation • Extrinsic regulation

  27. Homeostatic regulation involves • A receptor • A control center • An effector

  28. Figure 1.5 Negative Feedback: The Control of Body Temperature Figure 1.5

  29. Figure 1.6 Positive Feedback: Blood Clotting Figure 1.6

  30. SECTION 1-4A frame of reference for anatomical studies

  31. Anatomical position – standing upright with palms facing forward • Superficial anatomy breaks the body into anatomical landmarks and regions • Sectional anatomy provides directional references

  32. Figure 1.7 Anatomical Landmarks Figure 1.7a

  33. Figure 1.7b

  34. Figure 1.8 Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions Figure 1.8a

  35. Figure 1.8b, c

  36. Figure 1.9 Directional References Figure 1.9

  37. Plans and Sections are important in visualizing structures • Transverse plane divides the body into superior and inferior • Frontal (coronal) plane divides the body into anterior and posterior • Sagittal plane divides the body into left and right • Midsagittal divides the body exactly down the middle

  38. Figure 1.10 Planes of Section Figure 1.10

  39. Body Cavities • Body cavities are internal chambers holding vital organs • Cavities protect vital organs • Cavities allow organs to change in shape and size • Two body cavities • Dorsal body cavity includes the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity • Ventral body cavity includes the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity

  40. Figure 1.12a Body Cavities Figure 1.12a, b

  41. Thoracic Cavities • The thoracic cavity contains the heart and lungs. • It is subdivided into the left and right pleural cavities and the mediastinum • Each pleural cavity contains one lung lined by the visceral and parietal pleura • The mediastinum contains the pericardium, another serous membrane that surrounds the heart PLAY Animation: Heart Dissection

  42. Abdominopelvic Cavity • The abdominopelvic cavity is lined by the peritoneum • The abdominal cavity extends from the diaphragm to the superior margins of the pelvis • liver, stomach, spleen and most of the large intestine

  43. Abdominopelvic Cavity • The pelvic cavity is bordered by the pelvis, with a floor of muscle • reproductive organs, urinary bladder and the final portion of the large intestine PLAY Animation: Digestive System Dissection

  44. Clinical technology allows many different views of the body • X-rays • Computerized tomography (CT) scans • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans • Ultrasound images • Spiral CT scans • Digital subtraction angiography images (DSA) • Positron emission tomography (PET) scans

  45. Figure 1.13 X-rays Figure 1.13

  46. Figure 1.14 Common scanning techniques Figure 1.14

  47. Figure 1.15 Special Scanning Methods Figure 1.15c

  48. You should now be familiar with: • The characteristics of life. • The sciences of anatomy and physiology and their various subdivisions. • The levels of organization in the human body. • The definition and importance of homeostasis. • The terminology associated with superficial and sectional anatomy and the body cavities.