United Arab Emirates University College of Engineering Industrial Training & Graduation Projects Unit PRODUCTION OF ACETON FROM ISO-PROPANOL Presented By Eida AlMansouri 980724217 Rehab Alkaabi 199904156 Halima Abdullah 199902518
Summary Primary objectives Design a chemical plant that uses isopropyl alcohol (IPA) as the raw material for the production of a food-grade Acetone and to asses the design from economical, environmental and safety perspectives. The purpose of our project is to select the most suitable process or method
Introduction Industrial Production Methods of Acetone Oxidation of Hydrocarbons 2-propanol dehydrogenation process Cumene peroxidation Hercules process Allied process
Oxidation of Hydrocarbons The chemical reaction in this process is: OOH Oxygen | C6H5CH(CH3)2 ---------> C6H5C(CH3)2 -----> C6H5OH + CH3COCH3 Cumene peroxidation process block flow diagram
Water Off-gas (H2) Acetone scrubber Phase separator Reactor IPA Acetone Acetone separator waste water + IPA 2-propanol Dehydrogenation Iso-propanol dehydrogenation process block flow diagram. Recycled IPA Process reaction CH3CHOHCH3 -----> CH3COCH3 + H2
Comparing between cumene peroxidation and dehydrogenation of iso-propanol • The by-products in the first method are very toxic materials (e.g. phenol & heavy hydrocarbons) • The main product for cumene peroxidation is phenol not acetone which we need to produce • cumene peroxidation need separation and purification units more than the iso-propanol dehydrogenation process which will increase the cost of production.
Properties and Uses of Materials Materials Isopropanol Acetone Hydrogen
Properties and Uses of Materials Isopropanol • A colorless liquid . • Miscible with water. • It melts at -89°C and boils at 82.3°C. • Oxidation of isopropanol is now the major source of acetone.
Properties and Uses of Materials Isopropanol usage • As a coolant in beer manufacture. • A coupling agent . • Production of polyvinyl fluoride. • IPA is used also in the production of acetone . • (oxidation of isopropanol is now the major source of acetone). • Production of other chemicals (such as isopropyl acetate and • Isopropylamine.
Properties and Uses of Materials Acetone • It is also called dimethyl ketone, • A colorless liquid . • It evaporates easily. • Flammable. • Dissolves in water. .
Properties and Uses of Materials Acetone usage • Make plastic, fibers, drugs, and other chemicals. • Dissolve other substances. • Production of methyl methacrylate, methacrylic acid, • and higher methacrylate . • Drug and pharmaceutical applications
Properties and Uses of Materials Hydrogen • Hydrogen is a colorless • Odorless. • Combustible gas. • So light
Properties and Uses of Materials Hydrogen usage • Important in the proton-proton reaction. • Liquid hydrogen is used in cryogenics. • Study of superconductivity. • Use in welding. • The hydrogenation of fats and oils. • Methanol production . • Hydrocracking.
Process Feed • What is azeotrope? • Feed properties: • 88% IPA • 12% water • Boiling point temperature= 80oC
Reaction Catalysts What is the catalysts? It is a substance, usually used in small amounts relative to the reactants, that modifies and increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed in the process.
Shapes of Catalyst Cylindrical Spherical Cubic
Reaction Catalyst Catalysts and the required heating
Conversion The reactor conversion about 80% Overall conversion is about 99.5%
Material balance Production rate=10000Kg/hr of 99.9wt% acetone Conversion=99.5%
Dehydrogenation process Equipments Pump (P-001): The pump increases the pressure of the feed from 1.01 bar to 2.8 bar. Heat Exchanger (E-001): This unit heats, vaporizes, and superheats the feed to 240 oC at 2.8 bar. Reactor (R-001): In this Reactor only the following reaction occurs in the presence of the catalyst:
Fired Heater (H-001): This unit heats the molten salt that provides the heat to the reactor. Heat Exchanger (E-002): This unit cools and partially condenses the reactor effluent. The exit pressure and temperature are 2.4 bar and 45oC respectively. Heat Exchanger (E-003): This unit cools and partially condenses the reactor effluent. The exit pressure and temperature are 2.4 bar and 20oC respectively.
Separation Vessel (V-001): This unit disengages the vapor and liquid effluent from E-003. In this separator, all the hydrogen in the feed enters the vapor phase. All other components distribute according to Raoult’s Law at the temperature of E-003. Absorber (T-001): Acetone is recovered by absorption into pure process water.
Distillation Column (T-002): In this distillation column, the acetone, IPA-water, and water in stream 15 are separated. The column operates at 1.4 bar. The acetone must be 99.9% pure and 99.5 mol% of the acetone in the feed must be recovered in stream 16. Stream 17 contains most of the water and IPA-water from stream 15.
Heat Exchanger (E-004): In this exchanger, the contents of stream16 are condensed from saturated vapor to saturated liquid. Heat Exchanger (E-005): In this exchanger, the flow of stream17 is vaporized from saturated liquid to saturated vapor at 1.4 bar.
Distillation Column (T-003): This additional distillation column is to process stream 17 further. This column can recover a near azeotropic mixture of IPA-water (88 wt% IPA -with all the acetone remaining in stream 17) out from the top, with residual water and IPA out from the bottom. The top product will be recycled to the feed of the process. The bottom product will go to wastewater treatment. This column operates at 1.2 bar.
Heat Exchanger (E-006): In this exchanger, the contents of stream18 are condensed from saturated vapor to saturated liquid. Heat Exchanger (E-007): In this exchanger, the flow of stream19 is vaporized from saturated liquid to saturated vapor at 1.2 bar.
H2 Process IPA-Water +Water Acetone Water Material Balance on the Process • Reaction Formula: • Calculations Basis:
H2 Acetone IPA-H2O Reactor IPA-water Material Balance on the Reactor
The gas in the container is in equilibriumwith the liquid or solid. Microscopic equilibrium between gas and liquid. Note that the rate of evaporation of the liquid is equal to the rate of condensation of the gas.
Vi, yi Fi, zi Li, xi Material Balance on tow phase separator
Li G out G in L out Material Balance on absorber
Acetone Feed IPA-water + Water Material Balance on the 1st Distillation Column
IPA-water IPA-water + Water Waste Water Material Balance on the 2ndDistillation Column
Energy balance • Objective • Estimate the cooling water required for the process • Determine the steam required for the process • Find the fuel required for the process • Estimate the overall energy requirement for the process. • Estimate the refrigerated water required for the process
Energy balances have been done on the following equipment • Feed Pump (P-001) • Vaporizer ( E-001 ) • Reactor (R-001) • Fired Heater (H-001) • Exchangers (E-002) and (E-003) • Condensers (E-004) and (E-006) • Reboilers (E-005) and (E-007) • Acetone distillation column (T-002) • IPA distillation column (T-003)
Feed Pump (P-001) Table (1): IPA-water flow rates inlet and outlet the feed pump (P-001)
Calculation • Results Table (2): Power requirement for feed pump (P-001).
Vaporizer ( E-001 ) Table (3): IPA-water inlet and outlet flow rates to the evaporator (E-001)
Calculation • Results Table (4): Duty and amount of stream used in the evaporator (E-001).
Reactor (R-001) Table (5): IPA-water inlet and outlet flow rates to the reactor (R-001).
Calculation • Results Table (6): Duty and amount of fuel used in the reactor (R-001).
Exchangers (E-002) Table (7): Products inlet and outlet flow rates to the condenser (E-002).
Calculation • The duty of the cooler is calculated directly from Hysis at the given conditions • Results Table (8): Duty and amount of cooling water needed in the condenser (E-002).
Exchangers (E-003) Table (9): Products inlet and outlet flow rates to the 2nd condenser (E-003).
Calculation • The duty of the cooler is calculated directly from Hysis at the given conditions • Results Table (10): Duty and amount of refrigerated water for condenser (E-003)