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  1. Part V Chapter Fifteen Adolescence: Cognitive Development Adolescent Thinking Teaching and Learning Prepared by Madeleine Lacefield Tattoon, M.A.

  2. Adolescence: Cognitive Development …adolescence combines ego, logic, and emotions… ego overwhelms logic; sometimes emotions overrides both…

  3. Adolescence: Cognitive Development • Egocentrism • a characteristic of adolescent thinking that leads young people (ages 10-13) to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others • believe that his or her thoughts, feelings, and experiences are unique, more wonderful or awful than anyone else’s.

  4. Adolescence: Cognitive Development • The Invincibility Fable • an egocentric conviction that he or she cannot be overcome or even harmed by anything that might defeat a normal mortal

  5. Adolescence: Cognitive Development • Imaginary Audience • the other people are watching, and taking note of, his or her appearance, ideas, and behavior

  6. Adolescence: Cognitive Development • Egocentrism Reassessed • recent waves of research has found that many adolescents do not feel invincible. • egocentrism “may signal growth towards cognitive maturity” (Vartanian, 2001)

  7. Adolescence: Cognitive Development • Formal Operational Though • Piaget’s fourth and final stage of cognitive development, characterized by more systematic logic and the ability to think about abstract ideas

  8. Adolescence: Cognitive Development • formal operational thought allows one to imagine all possible determinants, and systematically: • vary the factors one by one • observe the results correctly • keep track of the results • draw the appropriate conclusions

  9. Adolescence: Cognitive Development • Hypothetical-Deductive Though • …formal operational thought is the capacity to think of possibility, not just reality • hypothetical though • reasoning that includes propositions possibilities that may not reflect reality

  10. Adolescence: Cognitive Development • DeductiveReasoning • reasoning from a general statement, premise, or principle, through logical steps, to figure out (deduce) specifics—top-down thinking • Inductive Reasoning • reasoning from one or more specific experience or facts to a general conclusion, may be less cognitively advanced than deduction—bottom-up reasoning

  11. Adolescence: Cognitive Development • Intuitive, Emotional Thought • …because adolescents can use hypothetical-deductive reasoning does not mean that they use it… • …adolescents find it easier and quicker to forget about logic and follow impulse

  12. Adolescence: Cognitive Development • Two Modes of Thinking dual-process model • the notion that two networks exist within the human brain, one for emotions and one for analytical processing of stimuli

  13. Adolescence: Cognitive Development • Intuitive thoughts • thought that arises from an emotion or a hunch, beyond rational explanation—past experiences, cultural assumptions, and sudden impulses are the precursors of intuitive thought—contextualized or experiential thought • Analytic thought • thought that results from analysis, such as a systematic ranking of pros and cons, risks and consequences, possibilities and facts… analytic thought depends on logic and rationality

  14. Adolescence: Cognitive Development • Comparing Intuition and Analysis • sunk cost fallacy • the belief that if time or money has already been invested in something, then more time or money should be invested

  15. Adolescence: Cognitive Development • Better Thinking • adolescents use their minds with more economy than children • with age thinking is more efficient and less likely to go off on a tangent • analytic mode joins the intuitive mode

  16. Teaching and Learning • “Given the nature of the adolescent mind, we are left with the question to ponder: What and how should teenagers be taught?”

  17. Teaching and Learning • Secondary Education • it usually occurs from about age 12 to18, although there is some variation by school and by nation • traditionally grades 7th through 12th

  18. Teaching and Learning • separate schools have been created for children who have outgrown primary school • once called high school, with younger students put in separate schools called junior high (7th,8th,9th grades)

  19. Teaching and Learning • middle school • grades between elementary and high school...middle school can begin with 5th grade or and usually ends with 8th grade • with puberty occurring earlier than in years past…often at age 11… many intermediate middle schools have been established to educate 6th graders with 7th and 8th graders • 9th graders have been reassigned to high schools

  20. Teaching and Learning • middle school • academic achievement often slows down and behavioral problems become more commonplace • the first year of middle school is called the “low ebb” of learning • long term academic trajectories are strongly influenced by experienced in grades 6th-8th

  21. Teaching and Learning • middle school • middle school scheduling means teachers have many students • bonding between students and teachers is key to learning…yet, doesn’t always occur do to scheduling • students’ relationships with one another deteriorate... due to the numbers of people they come in contact with in schools

  22. Teaching and Learning • middle school • answers are not clear… adolescent egocentrism is particularly strong in early adolescence and the intuitive thought generally overwhelms logic • research finds that egocentrism, intuitive thought, and logic coexist in every classroom

  23. Teaching and Learning • Technology and Cognition • is no longer limited only to developed nations • teenagers worldwide use the Internet • adults hope that computers will be a boon to learning • some fear that technology will undercut respect for adults and schools

  24. Teaching and Learning • Transitions and Translations • students find that changes, even positive ones, are disruptive • transitions from one school to another are difficult, decreasing a person’s ability to function and learn • changing schools just when the growth spurt and sexual characteristics develop is bound to create stress

  25. Teaching and Learning • Transitions and Translations • hormones, body shape, sexual impulses, family and culture contribute to disorders in transition

  26. Teaching and Learning • Teaching and Learning in High School • adolescents think abstractly, analytically, hypothetically, logically… personally, emotionally, intuitively and experientially • by high school, the curriculum and teaching style is often analytic and abstract • adolescents can use logic to override the “biases that not only preserve existing beliefs but also perpetuate stereotypes and inhibit development.”

  27. Teaching and Learning • Focus on the Brightest • an evaluation that is critical in determining success or failure… if a single test determines whether a student will graduate or be promoted, that is a high-stakes test

  28. Teaching and Learning • Focus on the Dropouts • not every student who begins secondary school stays until finished • developed nations typically require students to stay in school between 14 and 18, with age 16 being the average • in the U.S. and Canada 90% are high school graduates • most dropouts leave at the age of 17

  29. Teaching and Learning • Student Engagement • students who are capable of passing classes are as likely to drop out as those with learning disabilities • persistence, diligence, and motivation play more crucial roles than intellectual ability when it comes to earning a high school diploma

  30. Teaching and Learning • Student Engagement • many students express boredom and unhappiness with school • honor students and delinquents have “high rates of boredom, alienation, and disconnection from the meaningful challenge” of school

  31. Teaching and Learning • students are often disengaged • usual because formal operational thought is promoted • egocentric and intuitive thought, are more rational and social, and are usually excluded • teachers are hired for their expertise in one or more academic fields, rather than their ability to relate to adolescents

  32. Teaching and Learning • possible improvements • keep high schools small • 200 to 400 students • encourage extracurricular activities

  33. Teaching and Learning • School violence “The same practices that foster motivation and education can also prevent violence.” • students are less likely to be destructive or afraid if … • they are engaged in learning • bond with teachers and fellow students • are involved in school activities

  34. Teaching and Learning • School violence • studies also show that metal detectors, and strict punishment, are more likely to increase violence than decrease violence

  35. Teaching and Learning • School violence • primary prevention to improve school climate • increase friendships • strengthen teacher-student relationships • promote student involvement • programs that teach conflict resolution have also had some success