Fundamentals of Reading Instruction Presented by: Ashley Hughes
Five Components of Reading Instruction • Research states that there are 5 essential components of Reading Instruction: (NCLD, 2010) • Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Reading Comprehension
Phonemic Awareness • Phonemic awareness is knowing that words are made of individual sounds and being aware of and able to manipulate these sounds, which are called phonemes. (For Example: /s/ in /sit/) • Children should: • Rhyme (the fat cat Pat) • Pick out syllables in spoken words (Su-san) • Know the first and last sounds in a word (ran, can; sit, it) • Separate the sounds in a word (/s/-/i/-/t/) • Teaching sounds along with the letters of the alphabet will help develop phonemic awareness,
Phonics • Phonics is the relationship between sounds and letters. • Children must understand that letters are representations of sounds before they can learn to read. (The relationship between written letters and spoken sounds.) • A (Apple) B (Ball) C (Cat) • Phonics instruction helps teach children letter-sound correspondences.
Fluency • Fluency is the ability to read a text accurately and quickly. • Fluent readers do not have to concentrate on recognizing the words, they can focus their attention on what the text means. • Fluency builds a bridge between word recognition and comprehension • Increase Fluency Increase Comprehension
Vocabulary • Vocabulary is knowing words and knowing what they mean. • There are four types of vocabulary: listening vocabulary, speaking vocabulary, reading vocabulary, and writing vocabulary. • It is easier for beginning readers to read words that are already part of their oral vocabularies.
Vocabulary continued… Students should engage in activities, such as, • Word play (For example: "When you use glue in class, it paste to be careful.“ (PUN)) • Do research into the history of a word • Search for examples of a word in their everyday lives (For example: read signs or cereal boxes)
Comprehension • Reading comprehension is being able to understand, remember, and communicate what has been read. • Reading to learn subject matter does not occur automatically once students have learned to read • Strategies for taking the meaning from text need to be taught. • Students need to be taught how to make sense out of text and how to construct meaning.
References • Article: Reading Instruction Checklist • National Center for Learning Disabilities www.ld.org