Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e Introducing Hospitality John R. Walker Chapter 1
Hospitality through the ages • The word hospitality comes from the French term hospice, meaning “to provide care/shelter for travelers.”
Ancient Times • The Summarians, after becoming successful farmers, began other activities such as • Writing • Inventing money • Creating pottery • Making tools • Producing beer • Taverns provided a place for locals to relax and enjoy each other’s company • Taverns and Inns began springing up all over Europe, China, Egypt and India
Greece and Rome • The Code of Hammurabi (1700 B.C.E.) was one of the first written documents imposing penalties for plotting crimes in Taverns. • The Code also imposed the death penalty for watering down the beer! • The Romans built Inns about 25 miles apart on all the main roads throughout the country. • The first ‘business lunch’ was the idea of a Roman tavern owner in 40 B.C.E.
Medieval Times • Charlemagne established rest houses for pilgrims in the 8th century • The stagecoach was popular in England with Inns and taverns located on the trail called ‘post houses.’ • In the late 16th century eating places called an ‘ordinary’ were taverns serving a fixed-price meal.
Coffee Houses • Coffee houses began to spring up all over Europe during the 17th century • The most famous was Café Florian on the Piazza San Marco which still operate today • Coffee houses were the social and literary centers of their day
The New World • Ordinary’s were common in the New World during the 1600’s • Cole’s Ordinary, 1663 • Hudson’s House, 1640 • The Stadt House, 1642 • Frauncis Tavern, where George Washington maintained his Revolutionary headquarters is still operating today. • John Adams, the 2nd President of the United States owned a tavern from 1783 to 1789
The French Revolution • The French Revolution changed the course of Culinary history as nearly all French chefs worked for the nobility. As the nobility lost their titles and their property, the chefs lost their jobs. • Many immigrated to the New World and found themselves in New Orleans, a French enclave. • There, they introduced sauces and other flavorful dishes that supplanted the primitive cooking originating with the British.
The Nineteenth Century • One of the first great cook books was Antoine Carême 's La Cuisine Classique detailing numerous dishes and their sauces. This was the beginning of the a la carte menu • Auguste Escoffier published the classic recipe book Le Guide Culinaire and installed the brigade system in the kitchen • Thirty five restaurants in New York City have celebrated their 100th anniversary
The Twentieth Century • There was a rapid development of hotels, motels, fast food, and coffee shops after World War II. • The 1980’s saw hospitality, travel, and tourism expand as baby boomers influenced the industry through their buying power. • After 9/11 the economic recovery proved very strong as hospitality businesses expanded in North America and abroad.
Welcome to You, the Future Hospitality Industry leaders • Hospitality industry is an exciting place to be: • It’s fascinating • It’s fun • It offers competitive pay • It offers advancement opportunities
Welcome to You, the Future Hospitality Industry leaders • Works to create memories • Everyday guests rely on us for service • Passion is in the service element • People with a service spirit are happy to do something extra to make the guest’s experience memorable • The WOW factor!
The Pineapple Tradition • The pineapple has enjoyed a rich and romantic heritage as a symbol of welcome, friendship, and hospitality • Pineapples were brought back from the West Indies by early European explorers during the seventeenth century • From that time on the pineapple became the favored fruit of royalty and the elite • Today, it is globally recognized as a symbol of hospitality
The Interrelated Nature ofHospitality and Tourism • The hospitality and tourism industry is the largest and fastest-growing industry in the world • Under the umbrella of travel and tourism, countless professions are necessary to meet the needs and wants of people away from home • All of these scopes have an effect on each other
The Interrelated Nature ofHospitality and Tourism • Hospitality employees have the ability to affect the human experience by creating powerful impressions—even brief moments of truth—that may last a lifetime • A moment of truth is an expression used to describe a guest and an associate meeting—as when a guest walks into a restaurant
The Interrelated Nature ofHospitality and Tourism • In managed services, foodservices are provided for airlines, military facilities, schools, health care operations, business and industry • These foodservice operations have the dual challenge of meeting the needs and wants of both the guests and the client (i.e., the institution itself)
The Interrelated Nature ofHospitality and Tourism • The hotel business provides career opportunities to associates who help make reservations, greet, assist, and serve guests • The restaurant business fulfills guests’ diverse needs and wants • Eating is a biological need that restaurants accommodate • Restaurants also fulfill other human desires (i.e., the need for socialization and to be entertained)
Characteristics of the Hospitality Industry • Our services are mostly intangible—the guest cannot “test-drive” a night’s stay or “taste the steak” before dining • The products are for use, not possession • There is inseparability of production and consumption of the service product, due to each guest’s unique demands • There is also the perishability of our product • For example, we have 1,400 rooms in inventory, but we sell only 1,200 rooms. What do we do with the 200 unsold rooms? Nothing—we lose 200 room nights and the revenue.
Characteristics of the Hospitality Industry • The hospitality industry is open 365 days 24 hours a day. • The industry relies heavily on shift work and sometimes hours extend beyond the normal work day • There are four basic shifts: • 7:00AM to 3:00PM • 10:00AM to 6:00PM • 3:00PM to 11:00PM • 11:00PM to 7:00AM
Hospitality Industry Philosophy • Changed from one manager planning, organizing, implementing, and measuring to managers counseling associates, giving them resources, and helping them think for themselves • A participative management style which results in associate empowerment, increased productivity, and guest and employee satisfaction
Hospitality Industry Philosophy • Corporate philosophy embraces the values of the organization—including ethics, morals, fairness, and equality • Shifts emphasis from the production aspect of business to the focus on guest-related services
Sustainable Hospitality • The concept of sustainability involves “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” • Sustainability is the ability to achieve continuing economic prosperity while protecting the natural resources of the planet and providing a high quality of life for its people and future generations.
Success in Service • Approximately 70% of the American and Canadian economies are engaged in service industries • It is critical to offer guests exceptional service and to understand the role of guest services • This is the “age of service” • We “buy loyalty with service”
Success in Service • A guest is someone who receives or benefits from the output of someone’s work • External customer satisfaction ultimately measures a company’s success, since they are the people who are willing to pay for a company’s services • Internal customers are the people inside any company who receive or benefit from the output of work done by others in the company
Success in Service • For success in service we need to: • Focus on the guest. • Understand the role of the guest-contact employee. • Weave a service culture into education and training systems. • Emphasize high-touch instead of just high-tech. • Thrive on change.
Moments of Truth • These are guest encounters • Every hospitality organization has thousands of moments of truth every day • Some of them include: • A guest calls the restaurant for a table reservation • A guest tries to attract the bartender’s attention for a cocktail because there are no seats available • A server takes an order • A server brings the check • A guest departs the restaurant
The Focus on Service • We suffer from an overreliance on technology • Effective leaders make things happen because they have developed the knowledge, skills, and attitude to get the most out of their staff. • Leadership involves managing change • Our guests are constantly changing
Service and Total Quality Management • Total quality management (TQM) is a continuous process that works best when managers are also good leaders • TQM is a participatory process that empowers all levels of employees to work in groups to establish guest service expectations and determine the best way to meet or exceed those expectations • The difference between TQM and quality control (QC) is that QC focuses on error detection, whereas TQM focuses on error prevention
The Disney Approach to Guest Service • The Disney mission statement is simple: “We create happiness.” • The key elements of Disneyland guest services include: • Hiring, developing, and retaining the right people • Understanding their product and the meaning of the brand • Communicating the traditions and standards of service to all cast members • Training leaders to be service coaches • Measuring guest satisfaction • Recognizing and rewarding performance
Disney Service Model • It begins with a smile • Make eye contact and use body language • Respect and welcome all guests • Value the magic • Initiate guest contact • Creative service solutions
Disney’s 5 Steps of Leadership • Provide clear expectations and standards • Communicate these expectations through demonstration, information, and examples • Hold cast members accountable for their feedback • Coach through honest and direct feedback • Recognize, reward, and celebrate success
Careers • A career path does not always go in a straight line • Progression means that we advance from one position to another • The path to General Manager in a hotel may go through a combination of positions because it is better to have experience in several areas (cross training)
Career Goals • A good way to gain experience in many areas is an internship and work experience • Exploring different areas of the hotel will help you better decide what career path to take
Is the Hospitality Industry for You? • The hospitality industry is a service industry; we take pride in caring about others • Recruiters look for service oriented people who ‘walk the talk” • Good work experience • Involvement in on-campus activities • Positive attitude • Good GPA
Self-Assessment and Personal Philosophy • The purpose of a self-assessment is to measure our current strengths and weaknesses and determine what we need to improve in order to reach our goals • Self-assessment helps establish where we are now and shows links to where we want to go • Make a list of areas to make improvements
Now is the Time to Get Involved • Very important to be involved in on-campus activities • Professional hospitality and tourism organizations • Participate in organizational events • Participating shows your commitment to the industry
Professional Organizations • CHRIE – the global advocate of hospitality and tourism education • NRA – National Restaurant Association • AH&LA – American Hotel & Lodging Assn. • ISES – International Special Events Society • PCMA – Professional Convention Management Assn. • NSMH – National Society of Minorities in Hospitality
Trends • Globalization • Safety and security • Diversity • Service • Technology • Legal issues • Changing demographics • Price value • Social Media • Sanitation