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Memory II: Not remembering

Memory II: Not remembering

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Memory II: Not remembering

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  1. Memory II: Not remembering 3/1/04

  2. Mr. Short Term Memory • Think H.M. • Bilateral medial temporal lobe resection • Anterograde amnesia • New info goes in one ear, out the next • Storing is different from encoding • Knows name, hometown, but…

  3. Plan: Errors in Memory • Sins of forgetting, distortion, and suggestibility (false memory) • Ways to improve memory • How’s your memory?

  4. Absentmindedness Transience Blocking Misattribution Suggestibility Bias Persistence Can occur at any stage Encoding Storage Retrieval 7 Sins of (normal) Memory

  5. Which is the real deal?

  6. Tatiana Cooley“I’m incredibly absentminded… I live by post-its” • 99 photos w/names • 15 minutes • Same photos, different order • 85 correct! • Also: strings of 4,000 numbers, 500 words, lines of poetry and deck of cards • “Visualization & association”

  7. The Name Game • http://www.pbs.org/saf/1102/features/name_game.htm

  8. Absentmindedness • Much of what we sense, we never notice • Change blindness (even while in our presence) • Encoding failures • Lack of attention OR, • Don’t process well enough for consolidation • Ineffective encoding • Imagine reading aloud to yourself while distracted…

  9. Consolidation • Changes in strength of neural connxns • Originally, Lashley & “Engram” • Rats in maze, more area removed, worse memory • No specific location • Equipotentiality

  10. Wrong, wrong, wrong • Specialization: “Bark” sound vs. “Dog” picture • Structure: Black-capped chickadees with vs. Monkeys w/out. • Neurochem– epinephrine (stress) & glucose • 22 seniors: Country Time vs. Crystal Light • 36 teenagers: normally -8%, unless glucose • Breakfast before tests…

  11. Transience: decay over time • Competing information displaces information attempting to retrieve • Interference • Sleep study, 1924: 1, 2, 4, 8 hours • Not as much decay as interference, inhibition, obliteration of old by new • Proactive- already known intf’s with new • Retroactive- new material intf’s with old • Stanford President: fish & names

  12. Memory as Reconstructive • Filling in missing pieces • Disadvantages of schemas • Office Study • Confidence & accuracy NOT well correlated (sleep list, 2 voices, remember vs. know) • Memories for early events = reconstructions

  13. Misinformation Effect • False/ misleading information given after eyewitness event incorporated into account of event • Loftus & Palmer (1974) • How fast was the car going when it… • Contacted- 31.8 • Smashed- 40.8 • Did you see any broken glass… • Hit- 14% • Smashed- 32%

  14. Experiment 1 • Film of 5-car chain-reaction accident • Accident = 4 seconds • Driver runs stop sign into oncoming traffic • 10 questions • How fast was Car A going when it ran the stop sign? • How fast was Car A going when it turned right? 10. Did you see a stop sign for Car A? (53% vs. 35%

  15. Experiment 2 • After short video: • How fast was white car going when it passed the barn while traveling along the country road? • How fast was the white car going while traveling along the country road? • 1 week later • Did you see a barn? • 17% vs. 2% said “Yes”

  16. Experiment 3 • Did you see a truck in the beginning of the film? • 0% • At the beginning of the film, was the truck parked beside the car? • 22%

  17. ACCURACY is VERY important • Tell me about the time you got a hand caught in a mousetrap and had to have the trap removed at the hospital? • Commercial…

  18. “My brother Colin was trying to get Blowtorch from me and I wouldn’t let him take it from me, so he pushed me into the wood pile where the mouse trap was. And then my finger got caught in it. And then we went to the hospital, and my mommy , daddy and Colin drove me there, to the hospital in our can, because it was far away, and the doctor put a bandage on this finger”

  19. False Memory Implantation • Present 4 childhood events • 3 provided by parents as true • 1 created by experimenter, verified as false • Describe all 4 events • 29% adults recall being lost in mall • 20-30% hospitalized with ear infection, spilling punch at wedding, evacuating store with activated sprinklers, releasing parking brake & rolling into object

  20. Case study*164* • Remembered feeling frightened • Described store was lost in • Recalled scolding when found • Remembered looks of man who found him (blue flannel, glasses, old, bald) • Clarity rated at top of scale • Chose true experience as false

  21. Application • Eyewitness Testimony (see clip)

  22. How to improve your memory

  23. How to Improve Memory: Mnemonics • Increase Practice Time • More time spent studying, better • Remember more from 4- 2hrs than 1-8hr • Increase the Depth of Processing • Think actively and deeply (how is it linked? Ask, think ,talk) • Hierarchical Organization • Outline: Broad categories, subcategories

  24. How to Improve Memory: Mnemonics • Method of Loci • Mentally place in familiar locations. Memorize familiar route, then place visual images. • Peg-Word Method • List of words = “pegs”; Hang items on pegs; imagine interaction • Minimize Interference • Study before sleeping; review all material right before exam • Utilize Context Effects • Setting, mood, time, smell, etc.

  25. Imagery & Mnemonics • One is a bun • Two is a shoe • Three is a tree • Four is a door • Five is a hive • Six is sticks • Seven is heaven • Eight is a gate • Nine is a line • Ten is a hen

  26. PTSD • Persistence of unwanted memories • Film clip