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Models of Earth

Models of Earth

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Models of Earth

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  1. Models of Earth

  2. Globes are 3-Dimensional Models of the Earth

  3. Types of Maps • 1. Political • Shows political (national and state) boundaries • (like a globe)

  4. Types of Maps • 1. Political • 2. Road • Shows interstate system, highways, and smaller roads, depending on the map • Used for navigation (getting from “here” to “there”

  5. Types of Maps • 1. Political • 2. Road • 3. Weather • Shows pressure systems, cloud cover, rainfall, weather forecasts

  6. Types of Maps • 1. Political • 2. Road • 3. Weather • 4. Bathymetric • The ocean floor, ocean features • Topography of the ocean

  7. Types of Maps • 1. Political • 2. Road • 3. Weather • 4. Bathymetric • 5. Topographic • Shows the differences in elevation (relief) of an area • Shows man-made features of the land as well as its natural features

  8. A. Paper Maps are Flat 2-Dimensional Representations of Earth’s Surface Problems: • Not as accurate as a 3-D Globe model • Earth’s features become distorted (they don’t look right)

  9. B. Map Making • Surveyors • Use distance and elevation information from known points to create maps • Known points of elevation are called: bench marks, metal stakes placed in stone and marked with the location and elevation • Aerial(from the sky) photography also helps make maps

  10. Benchmarks Mauna Kea, Hawaii

  11. Modern surveyors use: Compass Infrared theodolite & GPS

  12. C. Map Projections • Cartographers (map makers) illustrate world maps as a projection to reduce distortion • Map projection – transferring a curved surface (the Earth, sphere) to a flat one (the map). • Common map projections: Mercator, Gnomonic (polar), and (Poly)conic

  13. I. Mercator Projection Map The mercatormap projection shows the view of Earth as if a large cylinder of paper had been wrapped around the globe. This is the most common type of projection

  14. Mercator Projection Map -Disadvantage Major distortion effects near the poles (land looks larger than what it really is) +Advantage Indicates true directions as straight lines of latitude and longitude, makes a rectangular grid pattern

  15. II. Gnomonic or polar Projection Map A gnomonicorpolar projected map is created as if a piece of paper had been placed on a point on the Earth.

  16. III. (Poly)Conic Projection Map The (poly)conic map projection shows the view of Earth as if a large paper cone had been wrapped around the globe. This type of map is useful for mapping areas in the middle latitudes.

  17. Identify the type of map projection. • Write the name of the type of projection in your notes

  18. Review: What type of halves is the Earth divided into? • North-South Hemispheres are separated by the imaginary line called the Equator • East-West Hemispheres are separated by imaginary lines called the Prime Meridian(Greenwich Meridian) and the International Date Line

  19. Latitude and LongitudeGrid of imaginary lines placed over Earth Every location on the Earth has a specific latitude and longitude “address.”

  20. Latitude • Latitude lines circle the Earth horizontally, parallel to the Equator (0 Degrees) • Latitude is measured in Degrees North or South of the equator (0-90 Degrees) • HHS is at 37° North Latitude

  21. Longitude • Longitude lines are half-circles that extend vertically between the poles • Longitude is measured in Degrees East or West of the Prime Meridian (0-180 Degrees) • HHS is at 78° West Longitude

  22. D. How do you know the size of landforms or the distance between cities on a map? • The map scale indicates how the map’s features and distances compare with the actual Earth • The comparison is given as a ratio: 1:24,000

  23. Map Scale as a Ratio • 1 : 24,000 means that 1 map unitequals =24,000 units on Earth

  24. E. How do you determine direction on a map? • Usually, most modern maps place North at the top • Compass Rose indicates direction • Geographic North vs Magnetic North • Are they the same? • No, because… • the Earth is tilted on its axis

  25. Earth Observing System The satellites in the Earth Observing Systems (EOS) will contain sensors to monitor global climate change.

  26. Landsat Satellite Images

  27. Global Positioning System GPS is asystem of satellites and receivers that allow accurate positioning on the Earth. 24 satellites work together GPS Ground Receiver GPS Satellite

  28. Mapmaking & Technology Computer image modeled from global topography provided by NOAA