Propaganda Techniques#19 in TOC -Bandwagon -Loaded Words (repetition, emotional words, name calling) -Testimonials -Plain folks
What is propaganda? • Propaganda techniques influence opinions and avoid the truth in advertisements or media, often through the use of stereotypes, faulty generalizations, logical fallacies, or emotional language. • Often these techniques rely on some element of censorship or manipulation, either omitting significant information or distorting it.
Bandwagon Approach • This technique tries to get everyone to join in and do the same thing. • Ex. An ad telling you not to be the last kid on your block to own something. • What are some examples of the bandwagon technique that you can think of?
Loaded Words • Repetition: the product name or keyword or phrase is repeated several times • Emotional words: words such as luxury, beautiful, paradise, and economical are used to evoke positive feelings in the viewer. • Name-calling: Negative words are used to create an unfavorable opinion of the competitor in the viewer’s mind.
Loaded words (cont.) • Look at the advertisement on page 819. • Can you find examples of loaded words in the advertisement? • List some examples in your notes. • Unloaded words: plant, animal • Loaded words: weed, beast
Testimonial • An important person or famous figure endorses a product. • Ex. Having Lebron James endorse a product (Nike). • Can you think of some examples?
Transfer • Linking the qualities of one subject to another. • Ex. Standing in front of a flag to appear more patriotic.
Fear • Scaring an audience to get them to act a certain way. • Ex. Showing pictures of car accidents to stop drunk driving.
Snob Appeal • Taps into people’s desire to be special or part of an elite group. • Ex. The best deserve only the best- you deserve Beautiful Bubble bath soap.
Other techniques: • Faulty Cause and Effect • Use of a product is credited for creating a positive result. • Ex) Using Crest Whitening will make your teeth look pearly and white. • Compare and Contrast • The viewer is led to believe one product is better than another, although no real proof is offered. • Ex) Subway sandwiches provide 50% more meat than Quizno’s. • Plain Folks- identify product/ideas with locality or country, practical product for ordinary people