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St. Bernard of Clairvaux

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St. Bernard of Clairvaux

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  1. St. Bernard of Clairvaux The Schism of 1130

  2. Early Life Born in 1090, in Dijon Burgundy In 1111 entered Cistercian Monastery at Citeaux In 1115 he was chosen to found his own Monastery Bernard chose a plot of land in the valley of Absinthe in Burgundy Renamed the land Clairvaux or “The Valley of Light”

  3. Map of France

  4. The Beginnings of Clairvaux • After first year needed a year to recover • Dedication to rule and overall piety makes Bernard well known • Also became known as a miracle worker and a mystic • In 1122 Bernard was chosen to be a negotiator at the Concordant of Worms • Bernard is now known throughout Europe

  5. Early Public Service • In 1125 Bernard was chosen to end a dispute between the monastery of Chalons, and their Bishop • Later that year he had the Abbot of St. Sepulcher removed for failing to do his duty of upholding the Cistercian Rule • Most feats achieved through prolific and fearless writings • Made many friends… But also many enemies • By 1130 there were over 200 monks at Clairvaux

  6. The Schism of 1130 • Papal Decree of 1059 • 1130 Pope Honorius Dies, two popes are elected • Pope Innocent II – elected in the new fashion • Pope Anacletus II – elected in the old fashion • Most side with Anacletus because of political connections • Bernard choose Innocent because of his piety

  7. Bernard’s Early Travels • Council of Etampes • Then to England to meet with Henry I • Emperor Lothair of Germany calls council of Wurzburg • Convinced head of council, Bishop Norbert of Magdeburg • Lothair’s change of heart and Bernard's travel to Germany

  8. Bernard’s Travels cont. • 1131 Council of Rheims • 1132 Lothair and Innocent begin march towards Rome • Roger of Sicily is going to defend Rome • They need assistance from Genoa and Pisa • Bernard travels to Genoa • Failed to take St. Peters, had to settle for Pisa • Coronation of Lothair in Lateran Basilica

  9. Bernard’s Travels cont. • 1134 William of Aquitaine begins to persecute supports of Innocent • Bernard travels to meet with William • Roger of Sicily begins moving towards Pisa • Lothair could not help because of dispute with his brother Conrad • Bernard meets with Conrad • Lothair defends against Roger

  10. A Schism Ended • 1135 Bernard’s visit to Milan - “Bernardusarchiepiscopus” • 1137 Roger of Sicily’s last stand at Ragnano • 1138 Anacletus dies bringing Schism to an end • Total Travels: 5268 Miles • 1885 hours • 79 days worth of traveling time without stops

  11. Total Travels

  12. Later Life • Bernard single handedly ended the Schism • Convinced kings of France, England, and Germany • Made military victories possible • 1140 Bernard makes peace with Roger • 1145 Bernard preaches the Second Crusade • 1153 Bernard Dies

  13. Legacy • Bernard’s influence was so great that he became the leader of Europe during the twelfth century and thus we now identify the age in which he lived with him • Overall Bernard’s role in the schism was nothing less than being the most important factor in leading to Innocent’s eventual victory