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Activity 4

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  1. Activity 4 How Does Soap Work?

  2. Objectives: SWBAT • Identify polar and non-polar materials • Explain the behavior of a mixture of two immiscible liquids • Explain the effect of a surfactant on such a mixture

  3. Drill: • What is surface tension?

  4. Homework: • None

  5. Chapter Challenge • Create a procedure to make a soap from natural products that can be sold at local stores.

  6. What Do You See? • Look at the cartoon on page 779 and be prepared to discuss what you see.

  7. What do you think? Soap molecules have both polar and non-polar parts that allow them to dissolve both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances. • How can molecules of soap dissolve both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances?

  8. Investigate • Pages 779 – 783 • Completeness and neatness of work makes a difference. Answer all questions in complete sentences.

  9. Chem Talk • Action of Soap and Water • Micelles • An aggregation of molecules that have a polar or ionic end and a non-polar end such that in aqueous solution the polar ends will be outside the aggregate attracted to the water and the non-polar ends will be inside the aggregate away from the water

  10. Chem talk • Surface Tension • The result of intermolecular attraction force that causes the liquid to minimize its surface area

  11. Chem Talk • Soap Decreases Surface Tension • Decreases surface tension and allows bubble to be formed or allows needle to drop • Minimizes hydrophobic interaction between water and dirt or oil.

  12. What do You Think Now? At the beginning of this activity you were asked • How can molecules of soap dissolve both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances? • Review your answer. • How are soap molecules arranged inside a hydrophilic substance, such as water? • How are soap molecules arranged inside a hydrophobic substance, such as kerosene?

  13. Chem Essential Questions • What does it mean? • Macro • Describe what happened when you touched a soapy finger to the water with a sewing needle floating on top

  14. Chem Essential Questions • What does it mean? • Nano • On a molecular level, describe what happened when the soap was added to the water.

  15. Chem Essential Questions • What does it mean? • Symbolic • Draw a diagram of soap molecules dissolved in water

  16. Chem Essential Questions • How do you know? • What evidence do you have that a strong attraction exists between water molecules?

  17. Chem Essential Questions • Why do you believe? • Cleaning clothes requires the use of soap and water. Why can water alone not do the job of cleaning clothes?

  18. Chem Essential Questions • Why should you care? • An understanding of the interaction among water molecules or water molecules and other polar molecules will be required in order to produce a soap that has desirable properties. Creating a soap requires you to be aware of its molecular structure. What molecular structure will you require for your new soap?

  19. Reflecting on the Activity and the Challenge Page 787

  20. Homework • Chem to Go • pp 787 • Questions 1-8