Ancient Greece made up of city-states ( the most influential and largest city was Athens) • Objective Questions- • 1) Define- Direct Democracy, Aristocracy, Monarchy (Evaluate/ Judge which one is the best form of Government.) • 2) Identify two reforms of Ancient Greece seen in the US today and explain why each reform is central to the ideals of this country. • 3) Identify 1 contribution of each philosopher and explain how their ideas contributed to American Democracy. • Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
Athens- 1st democracy (gov. where people vote and make laws)United States Government is based on some Greek ideas) • Government- system that has authority (three types) • Democracy- people govern/ chose for themselves (vote for leaders and laws) • Citizen- person who can participate in government • Aristocracy- Government ruled by the rich/ elite • Monarchy- Gov. ruled by a king • Analyze how the US reflects into two of these systems but is not completely either of these systems.
Reformers- people who changed Greek Gov.Solon(594 BC) Greece in economic problems and people who owed money were being forced into slavery to pay off their debtsEvaluate if people who owe money should be forced into slavery? • Slavery- for debt outlawed • Class- based on $, not heredity (birth) • * IMPORTANCE- a hard worker could rise up in class • Juries- lowest class could serve • *IMPORTANCE-accused is judged by peers (people of same background) • Explain why the United States felt is was important and reflective of our nation to incorporate all of these ideas into the fabric of this nation?
Reformers- people who changed Greek Gov. Solon (Cont.) • Citizens- all free adult males • Limited Democracy- not everyone can vote • *Non-Citizens- slaves, foreigners, women, and children • 1/10 of population were citizens, 1/3 of pop slaves • Investigate one requirement that was expected of citizens that separated them from non-citizens. • Evaluate if all people should vote? Explain (Why should some Athenians not vote? Why should everyone vote?)
Reformers- people who changed Greek Gov. (cont.)Cleisthenes(508 BC) worked to make Athens a full democracy • Legislative assembly (part of government where citizens vote for representatives to create and vote on laws) • Cleisthenes allowed all citizens to suggest laws for debate and passage • Senate and House of Representatives- legislative assembly in the US • Council of 500- members chosen by lot (randomly) • *reforms by Cleisthenes allowed all citizens to participate in Democracy • Cleisthenes considered the founder of Democracy in Athens • Compare and contrast democracy in the US today and Ancient Greece (List several aspects of democracy in the US today, then examine how Ancient Greece and the US democracy are similar and different)
Pericles(461-429 BC) Golden Age of Greece- allowed poorer citizens to participate more in Gov. through more paid Gov. jobs and paying jurors • Direct Democracy- citizens rule directly by voting on every law and Gov. decision, not using a representative • I.e.- all citizens who would be eligible to go to war (18-40 year old men) would vote on whether to go to war or negotiate • Examine several reasons why direct democracy would not work in the US today and why voting for representatives is necessary? • Analyze if direct democracy has a place in today’s politics?
Philosophers(300 BC) used logic and reason (NOT RELIGION) to answer questions regarding the nature of the universe, human society, and morality • *Greece was the beginning of urban society and the problems it creates (poverty, crime, overcrowding, pollution) • *A respect of intelligence in Greece allowed democracy to flourish (open to new ideas) • Explain why philosophy and reason would develop in an urban (city) environment and religious ideas would have more popularity in rural (farm) areas
Great Greek Philosophers • Socrates- examine and question close beliefs, Ask why?, justice was not always fair or the same for all people • Identify one example where justice for the same crime would be different for two criminals • Plato (The Republic) wanted society governed by the wisest with fair laws, not the richest and most powerful • Aristotle- examined how humans fit in nature and world, Gov. needs to serve the people (not leader) • Briefly explain the view Plato and Aristotle felt about Government. Describe how Greek Government reflected Plato and Aristotle’s views
Legacy of Greece- used reason and intelligence, not superstition and religion • Greek ideas used by US today • Natural Laws- laws apply to all humans • Direct Democracy- citizens participate in government decisions • If Greece had such good ideas, analyze why only the US 2000 years later made these ideas the center of our beliefs and government? Why didn’t other countries use and copy these ideas if they were so good?