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Fertile Crescent Empires

Fertile Crescent Empires

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Fertile Crescent Empires

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  1. Fertile Crescent Empires

  2. Fertile Crescent Empires Main Idea Indo-European invaders introduced new technologies to the Fertile Crescent while adapting earlier technologies developed by the civilizations they encountered there. • Reading Focus • Military advantages helped the Hittites establish an empire in Asia Minor. • Events led to the rise and fall of the Assyrian and Chaldean empires. • The main achievements of the Phoenicians.

  3. The Hittites • Decline of Babylonian Empire • Nomadic tribes moved into the region, drawn by wealth • Included Indo-Europeans- peoples from Europe and India that had intermarried. Drought, conflict, lack of resources drove them here. • Steppes: arid grasslands north of the Black Sea • Hittite Military Might • Hittites: warlike Indo-European tribe • Built strong empire in Asia Minor (now Turkey) • Horse-drawn war chariot (3 soldiers) and new techniques • Hittite Culture • Blended their culture with cultures around them (used cuneiform and wrote code of laws like Hammurabi’s) • First to make objects out of iron (mostly ornaments) • Rule reached peak in 1300s BC (fell to the Sea Peoples)

  4. Summarize How were the Hittites able to build an empire in Asia Minor? Answer(s): With their military advantages, they were able to conquer people in surrounding areas.

  5. The Assyrians War Machine Assyrian Rule • Fierce warrior society • War chariots, foot soldiers, cavalry all armed with iron weapons • Masters of siege warfare, used battering rams or dug beneath walls. • Terror- killed or maimed captives • From Northern Mesopotamia • Barley, cattle • Adopted Sumerian culture • New empire in 900 BC • Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Egypt • Efficient system • Local leaders governed small sections of the empire. • System of roads • Brutal with opposition • Cultural achievements, library at Nineveh. The Assyrians and the Chaldeans After the Hittite empire fell, other peoples fought for dominance in western Asia. In time, the Assyrians became the supreme power in the region; later the Chaldeans formed their own empire.

  6. As Assyria began to decline, the Chaldeans swooped in. Babylon, capital of their new empire Nebuchadnezzar II Warrior and builder, captured Jews and took them as slaves. Hanging Gardens of Babylon, rebuilt Babylon Chaldean culture Admired ancient Sumerian culture Developed calendar; advances in astronomy Persians conquered the Chaldeans less than 100 years after their empire was founded. The Chaldeans

  7. Trading Society Alphabet • Western end of Fertile Crescent • Farming difficult, resources limited • Trade and sea for livelihood • Expert sailors • Founded colonies on routes, most famous was Carthage • Trade brought great wealth, cedar trees and purple dye • Invented glassblowing • Exports: ivory, silver, slaves • Greatest achievement • Invented by traders to record activities, partially based on cuneiform • Adopted by many, including the Greeks • Ancestor of the English language alphabet The Phoenicians In an area of western Asia called Phoenicia, city-states emerged as trading centers, and Phoenicians built a wealthy trading society.

  8. Find the Main Idea What were the Phoenicians’ most significant achievements? Answer(s): purple dye, glassblowing, alphabet