Where is the fertile crescent? • The heart land of the middle East
Why is it called the Fertile Crescent? • The two rivers ensured successfully farming made the land fertile • The shape of the area
What was the region called between the Tigris and Euphrates? • Mesopotamia – Means “Land between the rivers” • 4000 BC people called the Sumerians lived in small city-states called UR • City States – An independent self-governing political unit.
Political Organization • Refers to that system of making decisions, controlling internal conflicts and regulating relations with other groups. • Who was the leader of the Sumerians? • King Gilgamesh • Monarchy – One ruler; King or Queen • How did Gilgamesh use propaganda?
Language • A system of sounds and symbols which, when combined, can generate comprehensive multimodal communication of an infinite number of subjects. • Cuneiform – Wedge – shaped marks on clay – symbols • Scribes – Writers
Religion • A system of ideas or thought utilized to explain the world and cosmos and people’s relation to it. • Polytheistic – beliefs in many Gods • Sumerians explained natural events as the result of actions by gods and goddesses ex. Floods • God of winter – Dumuzi • Goddess of Spring – Malissa Quigley
Religion Continued • Polytheism – belief in many gods or goddesses • The Sumerians viewed natural forces as gods • Ziggurat- temple
Architecture • At the center of each Sumerian city was a temple, called a Ziggurat • Ziggurat – “Mt. of God”
Akkadian Empire • City-state- Akkad • Sargon I the leader of the Akkadian Empire • Empire- a group of countries under one ruler • How did Sargon I use propaganda?
Babylon Empire • City State – Babylonia • Identify - Henry Rawlinson English Scholar – Who translated the Babylonian writings into Persians • Who was the leader of the Babylonians? • Hammurabi
Code of Laws • Hammurabi – developed a system of code of laws • It was based on the principal of “An Eye For An Eye” • Punishment = Crime • How did Hammurabi use propaganda? 1. Sun/Justice God Shamash 2. Code of Laws
Laying Down the Law • Law 1 • State one of Hammurabi’s laws from the selection of laws • Write the law in your own words • Compare the law to one of the laws in the US • Contrast the law to one of the laws in the US
Kassites • Location: Persia, present day Iran • Leader: Gandash • How did Gandash use propaganda? • Retained the Babylonian culture
Hittites • Location: Asia-Minor • Leaders: Suppiluliumus and Muwatallis • How did these leaders use propaganda? • First to use iron weapons- smelting • Signed the first written treaty with the Egyptians- Muwatallis and Ramses II
Assyrians • What was the location of the Assur? • What was the capital of the Assyrian Empire? • Who was the Leader of the Assyrian empire? • How was the Assyrian army divided? • How did the leaders use propaganda?
Assyrians Continued • Who did the Assyrians borrow the idea of smelting? • Define provinces. • What are the Present day countries that made up the Assyrian empire?
Chaldeans • Location: Southern part of Mesopotamia Capital: Babylon • Why did Chaldeans call themselves Babylonians? They were descendents of the people who made up Hammurabi’s empire. • Who was their king? • Nebuchadnezzar
Chaldeans cont. • How did Nebuchadnezzar use propaganda? • 1. He built the hanging gardens of Babylon for his wife. • 2. To please the people he built a street for the god Marduk.
Phoenicians • Carriers of civilizations- 700 BC • Location: eastern Mediterranean coast- Present day- Lebanon • Carriers of civilizations- established trade routes. They visited other civilizations by doing this they introduced their civilization. • Leader: Dido
Phoenicians Accomplishments • Alphabet • Royal Color • Ship Building
Hebrews • Location: From UR to Canaan • Identify • Yahweh - God • Abraham – Leader of the Hebrews. He lead the Hebrews to Canaan. • Why did the Hebrews leave Canaan? • There was a drought.
Cont. • Moses – He led the Hebrews out of Egypt. However, Moses died before reaching Canaan. • Joshua- He led the Hebrews to Promise Land. • Saul- He was the first king. • David- He reunited the Hebrews. • Solomon-He extended trade and treaties with other civilizations. • Gradually they became weak enough for others to conquer.
Do You Know Your World Cult? 1. What was the civilization that introduced iron weapons? 2. What were the two civilizations and their leaders who signed the first written treaty in history? 3. What does Mesopotamia mean? 4. Who created the world’s first empire? 5. Where did the Sumerians first settle? 6. Who developed a law code in Babylonia? 7. What were the Assyrians military techniques? 8. Who was the Chaldean king and what did he create? 9. Explain “carriers of civilization”? 10. What is the royal color? 11. Who led the Exodus? 12 Name the ancient and present day countries.
Persian Empire • I. The Persians • II. Army and Empire • III. Government Officials • IV. Family Life • V. Religion • VI. Trade